Modeling the Work Hardening Behavior of High-Manganese Steels
The work hardening of a series of high-manganese steels with various chemical compositions (manganese contents of 18–30 wt.% and carbon contents of 0.06–1.2 wt.%) and deformation products (mechanical twins and/or ε-martensite) was modeled using a physics-based model. The model comprised the contributions of dislocation glide and phase transition (mechanical twinning and/or ε-martensite formation) kinetics to the overall work hardening rate. The model parameters included the physical characteristics of the steels such as the stacking fault energy as well as the microstructural features such as the volume fraction of the deformation products. A key point of the model was that it is globally applicable for all high-manganese steels—including twinning-induced plasticity and/or transformation-induced plasticity steels—instead of being limited to a specific category of these steels. A good agreement was found between the predicted and observed work hardening for all the experimental alloys in this study as well as several high-manganese steels in the literature.
Keywordsdeformation high-manganese steel martensitic transformation twinning work hardening modeling
The authors acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC, grant RGPIN 298973-2013) for its financial support. They also thank the Resource for the Innovation of Engineered Materials (RIEM) program of CANMETMaterials for fabrication of the Fe-22Mn-0.6C and Fe-30Mn-0.6C sheet steels used in this study. All electron microscopy for this study was conducted in the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy (CCEM), and all x-ray diffraction was carried out within the McMaster Analytical X-Ray Diffraction Facility (MAX) within the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research (BIMR).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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