Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 498–511 | Cite as

Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of Friction-Stir-Welded 316L Austenitic Stainless Steels

  • R. Ramesh
  • I. Dinaharan
  • Ravi Kumar
  • E. T. Akinlabi


Fusion welding of austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) causes undesirable metallographic changes. An attempt has been made to join 3-mm-thick 316L ASS plates using friction stir welding and correlate the microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties under various welding conditions. Tungsten alloy (W-Re) tool was employed for welding. Successful joints were obtained within a range of traverse speeds (45-85 mm/min) used in this work. Various zones were observed across the joint line. The stir zone exhibited considerable grain refinement and traces of delta ferrite phase. EBSD images showed a decreasing grain size with increased traverse speed. XRD patterns and TEM images confirmed the existence of delta ferrite. The mechanical properties of the joints including microhardness, tensile strength, impact toughness and bending were further reported.


austenitic stainless steel friction stir welding microstructure tensile strength 



The corresponding author is grateful to Indian Academy of Sciences at Bangalore, Indian National Academy of Sciences at New Delhi and The National Academy of Sciences India at Allahabad for awarding Summer Research Fellowship (Reg. No. ENGT-51, 2015) to carry out this work. The authors are grateful to Materials Joining Laboratory at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, OIM and Texture Lab at Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Microscopy Lab at University of Johannesburg and PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, for extending the facilities to carry out this investigation.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Ramesh
    • 1
  • I. Dinaharan
    • 2
  • Ravi Kumar
    • 3
  • E. T. Akinlabi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPSG College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering ScienceUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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