Mechanical Integrity of Biodegradable Mg–HA Composite During In Vitro Exposure

  • Anshu Dubey
  • Satish Jaiswal
  • Debrupa LahiriEmail author


Biodegradable metals are being frequently explored as a very potential replacement for bone implant and fixing accessories, owing to their superior mechanical and biological properties. In connection to this, biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys exhibit good biocompatibility for orthopedic applications. Nevertheless, the use of these biodegradable materials has been restricted due to their fast degradation rate in the physiological environment, even before the new tissue is adequately generated. So, it becomes necessary to bring down their corrosion rate to retain their mechanical integrity until the bone properly heals. A solution to this problem is found in hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced Mg-based composites. However, it is important to understand the mechanical behavior of these materials, after exposure to body environment. In this study, HA-reinforced composites of Mg-based (Mg-3Zn) matrix are evaluated for their mechanical integrity in simulated in vitro condition. Addition of 5 wt.% HA decreased the corrosion rate of Mg-3Zn, which in turn maintained the mechanical integrity of the structures even after 14 days of immersion. Mg-3Zn and Mg-3Zn-5HA composites have retained ~ 34 and 66% of ultimate compressive strength after 3 days of immersion. All these studies together establish the effect of HA on mechanical integrity of Mg-based composites in orthopedic application.


hydroxyapatite in vitro immersion magnesium mechanical integrity orthopedic fixture accessories 



The authors are thankful to all the laboratory staff of Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT, Roorkee, for their facilities. DL acknowledges the financial support from funding by Department of Science and Technology, India (SB/SO/HS/138/2013). Authors are also grateful to Mr. Manoj Kumar R and Ms. Ankita Bisht for their technical support at the time of experiment.

Supplementary material

11665_2018_3778_MOESM1_ESM.docx (74 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 74 kb)


  1. 1.
    M.P. Staiger, A.M. Pietak, J. Huadmai, and G. Dias, Magnesium and Its Alloys as Orthopedic Biomaterials: A Review, Biomaterials, 2006, 27, p 1728–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.S. Janin and H. Waizy, Biodegradable Magnesium Implants for Orthopedic Applications, J. Mater. Sci., 2013, 48, p 39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.S. El-Rahman, Neuropathology of Aluminum Toxicity in Rats (Glutamate and GABA Impairment), Pharmacol. Res., 2003, 47, p 189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.F. Lotfabadi, M.H. Idris, A. Ourdjini, M.R.A. Kadir, S. Farahany, and H.R. Bakhsheshi-Rad, Thermal Characteristics and Corrosion Behaviour of Mg-xZn Alloys for Biomedical Applications, Mater. Sci., 2013, 36, p 1103–1113Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Li and Y. Zheng, Zheng, Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2013, 29, p 489–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Ratna Sunil, C. Ganapathy, T.S. Sampath Kumar, and U. Chakkingal, Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Lamellar Structured Degradable Magnesium-Hydroxyapatite Implants, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2014, 40, p 178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.F. Hassan, K.S. Tun, and M. Gupta, Effect of Sintering Techniques on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Nano-yttria Particulates Reinforced Magnesium Nanocomposites, J. Alloys Compd., 2010, 509, p 4341–4347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Jayalakshmi, S. Sahu, S. Sankaranarayanan, S. Gupta, and M. Gupta, Development of Novel Mg-Ni60Nb40 Amorphous Particle Reinforced Composites with Enhanced Hardness and Compressive Response, Mater. Des., 2014, 53, p 849–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Muhammada, Z. Sajuri, Y. Mutohd, and Y. Miyashitad, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Technology, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509, p 6021–6029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Del Campo, B. Savoini, and A. Muñoz, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behaviour of Mg-HAP Composites, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2014, 39, p 238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.K. Khanra, H.C. Jung, S.H. Yu, K.S. Hong, and K.S. Shin, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-HAP Composites, Bull. Mater. Sci., 2010, 33, p 43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V.P. Mantripragada, B. Lecka-Czernik, and N.A. Ebraheim, An Overview of Recent Advances in Designing Orthopaedic Implants, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 2013, 101, p 3349–3364Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.M. Kim, J.H. Jo, S.M. Lee, M.H. Kang, H.E. Kim, Y. Estrin, J.W. Lee, and Y.H. Koh, Hydroxyapatite-Coated Magnesium Implants with Improved Invitro and in Vivo Bio Corrosion, Biocompatibility and Bone Response, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 2014, 102, p 429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.W. Song, D.Y. Shan, and E.H. Han, Electrodeposition of Hydroxyapatite Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterial Application, Mater. Lett., 2008, 62, p 3276–3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Song, A Possible Biodegradable Magnesium Implant Material, Adv. Eng. Mater., 2007, 9, p 298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Xu, E. Zhang, and K. Yang, Phosphating Treatment and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Mn-Zn Alloy for Biomedical Application, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med., 2009, 20, p 859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N.T. Kirkland, J. Lespagnol, N. Birbilis, and M.P. Staiger, A Survey of Biocorrosion Rate of Magnesium Alloys, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, p 287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L.L. Soon, H. Zuhailawati, I. Suhaina, and B.K. Dhindaw, Prediction of Compressive Strength of Biodegradable Magnesium-Zn/HA Composite via Response Surface Methodology and Its Biodegradation, Acta Mater., 2016, 29, p 464–474Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.B. Liu, M.F. Chen, and X.Y. Ye, Fabrication and Corrosion Behaviour of HA/Mg/Zn Biocomposites, Front. Mater. Sci. China, 2010, 4, p 139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Witte, F. Feyerabend, P. Maier, J. Fischer, M. Stormer, C. Blawert, W. Dietzel, and N. Hort, Biodegradable Magnesium–Hydroxyapatite Metal Matrix Composite, Biomaterials, 2007, 28, p 2163–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Zhang, S. Wu, Q. Chen, and X. Zhou, The Research on Corrosion Property of Some Magnesium Alloys for Biomaterials, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2015, 10, p 1015–1026Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.F. Zheng, X.N. Gu, and F. Witte, Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 2014, 77, p 1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. Xie, Y. Liu, D.S. Li, J. Zhang, Z.W. Zhang, and J. Bi, Influence of Sintering Routes to the Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloys and Its Composites Produced by PM Techniques, J. Alloys Compd., 2007, 431, p 162–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.N. Dezfuli, S. Leeflang, Z. Huan, J. Chang, and J. Zhou, Fabrication of Novel Magnesium-Matrix Composites and Their Mechanical Properties Prior to and During In Vitro Degradation, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 2017, 67, p 74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Singh, R.M. Kumar, K. Kumar, P. Gupta, S. Das, R. Jayaganthan, P. Roy, and D. Lahiri, Sol–Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopaedic Application, J. Met., 2015, 4, p 702–712Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.F. Lotfabadi, M.H. Idris, A. Ourdjini, and M.R. Kadir, Thermal Characteristics and Corrosion Behaviour of Mg-xZn Alloys for Biomedical Application, Bull. Mater. Sci., 2013, 36, p 1103–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Zhen, T.F. Xi, and Y.F. Zheng, A Review on In Vitro Corrosion Performance Test of Biodegradable Metallic Materials, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2013, 23, p 2283–2293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.M. Kumar, K. Kumar, S. Singh, P. Gupta, B. Bhushan, P. Gopinath, and D. Lahiri, Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopaedic Application, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2016, 287, p 82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Tun, W. Wong, Q. Nguyen, and M. Gupta, Tensile and Compressive Responses of Ceramic and Metallic Nanoparticles Reinforced Mg Composites, Materials, 2013, 6, p 1826–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Poddar, V.C. Srivastava, P.K. De, and K.L. Sahoo, Processing and Mechanical Properties of SiC Reinforced Cast Magnesium Matrix Composites by Stir Casting Process, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 460–461, p 357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.H. Fathi, A. Hanifi, and V. Mortazavi, Preparation and Bioactivity Evaluation of Bone Like-Hydroxyapatite Nano Powder, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 202, p 536–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomaterials and Multiscale Mechanics Lab, Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations