Hierarchical reinforcements of carbon fibers (CFs) coated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced via two different methodologies, namely chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and wet chemical treatment. These advanced smart structural materials are possible candidates for inherent strain sensing and improved interfacial properties when incorporated in the volume of structural fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The morphology and wetting properties of the hierarchical CFs were evaluated via SEM and contact angle measurements. Enhanced values in the strain-induced Raman sensing ability of the hierarchical reinforcement produced via CVD in comparison with the uncoated fibers were measured at single fiber level. The residual stress transfer profiles of both the hierarchical and the uncoated carbon fibers were also evaluated using the Raman spectroscopy in order to evaluate the phase interaction in the hierarchical structure. Compressive residual stresses in the order of 1.5 GPa were found to act on the CF surfaces, while tensile residual stresses were measured for both the CNT-coated systems. The effects of the preparation process of the CNT coatings on the residual stress profiles were also prominent, with the CVD-grown coatings resulting in higher tensile residual stresses, 1.76 GPa instead of 1.22 GPa for the coatings produced via wet chemical treatment. The change in the residual stress profiles established the interaction between the CFs and the CNTs via an anchoring mechanism which significantly altered the stress field at the vicinity of the interface.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
P. Ladevèze, D. Néron, and H. Bainier, The Structural Integrity of Carbon Fiber Composites (2017)
A. Paipetis, V. Kostopoulos, A. Vavouliotis, et al, in Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials (2013)
H. Qian, E.S. Greenhalgh, M.S.P. Shaffer, and A. Bismarck, Carbon Nanotube-Based Hierarchical Composites: A Review, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, p 4751–4762. https://doi.org/10.1039/c000041h
M. Sharma, S. Gao, E. Mäder et al., Carbon Fiber Surfaces and Composite Interphases, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2014, 102, p 35–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.07.005
K. Tsirka, G. Foteinidis, K. Dimos et al., Production of Hierarchical All Graphitic Structures: A Systematic Study, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2017, 487, p 444–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.10.075
R.J. Sager, P.J. Klein, D.C. Lagoudas et al., Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Interfacial Shear Strength of T650 Carbon Fiber in an Epoxy Matrix, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2009, 69, p 898–904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.12.021
P. Lv, Y.Y. Feng, P. Zhang et al., Increasing the Interfacial Strength in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites by Controlling the Orientation and Length of Carbon Nanotubes Grown on the Fibers, Carbon N Y, 2011, 49, p 4665–4673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.06.064
A. Paipetis and C. Galiotis, Modelling the Stress-Transfer Efficiency of Carbon—Epoxy Interfaces, Proc. R. Soc. A, 2001, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2000.0774
Q. Zhao and H.D. Wagner, Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Composites, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 2004, 362, p 2407–2424. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2004.1447
A.S. Paipetis, Stress Induced Changes in the Raman Spectrum of Carbon Nanostructures and Their Composites, Solid Mechanics And Its Applications, A. Paipetis and V. Kostopoulos, Ed., Springer, Amsterdam, 2013, p 185–217
C. Galiotis and D.N. Batchelder, Strain Dependences of the First-and Second-Order Raman Spectra of Carbon Fibres, J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1988, 7, p 545–547
I. Robinson, M. Zakikhani, and R. Day, Strain Dependence of the Raman Frequencies for Different Types of Carbon Fibres, J. Mater., 1987, 6, p 1212–1214. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01729187
O. Frank, G. Tsoukleri, I. Riaz et al., Development of a Universal Stress Sensor for Graphene and Carbon Fibres, Nat. Commun., 2011, 2, p 255. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1247
S.Y. Jin, R.J. Young, and S.J. Eichhorn, Hybrid Carbon Fibre-Carbon Nanotube Composite Interfaces, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2014, 95, p 114–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.02.015
S.Y. Jin, R.J. Young, and S.J. Eichhorn, Controlling and Mapping Interfacial Stress Transfer in Fragmented Hybrid Carbon Fibre-Carbon Nanotube Composites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2014, 100, p 121–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.05.034
A. Paipetis, C. Galiotis, Y.C. Liu, and J.A. Nairn, Stress Transfer from the Matrix to the Fibre in a Fragmentation Test: Raman Experiments and Analytical Modeling, J. Compos. Mater., 1999, 33, p 377–399. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199839903300404
V.G. Hadjiev, G.L. Warren, L. Sun et al., Raman Microscopy of Residual Strains in Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites, Carbon, 2010, 48, p 1750–1756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2010.01.018
O. Boura, E.K.Κ. Diamanti, S.A. Grammatikos et al., Carbon Nanotube Growth on High Modulus Carbon Fibres: Morphological and Interfacial Characterization, Surf. Interface Anal., 2013, 45, p 1372–1381. https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.5292
A. Paipetis and C. Galiotis, Effect of Fibre Sizing on the Stress Transfer Efficiency in Carbon/Epoxy Model Composites, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf., 1996, 27, p 755–767. https://doi.org/10.1016/1359-835X(96)00054-1
M. Li, Y. Gu, Y. Liu et al., Interfacial Improvement of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Using a Simple Process for Depositing Commercially Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Fibers, Carbon N Y, 2013, 52, p 109–121
F. Tuinstra and L. Koenig, Raman Spectrum of Graphite, J. Chem. Phys., 1970, 53, p 1126–1130. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1674108
R.S. Ruoff, D. Qian, and W.K. Liu, Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Measurements, Comptes Rendus Phys., 2003, 4, p 993–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crhy.2003.08.001
M.-F. Yu, Fundamental Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes: Current Understanding and the Related Experimental Studies, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 2004, 126, p 271–278. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1755245
The authors would like to thank Glonatech SA for providing the CNTs employed in the wet chemistry study.
About this article
Cite this article
Tsirka, K., Karalis, G. & Paipetis, A.S. Raman Strain Sensing and Interfacial Stress Transfer of Hierarchical CNT-Coated Carbon Fibers. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 27, 5095–5101 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-018-3532-2
- carbon nanotubes
- multiscale reinforcements
- Raman microscopy
- single fiber composites
- wet chemistry