A Study on Thermal Conductivity and Stability of Nanofluids Containing Chemically Synthesized Nanoparticles for Advanced Thermal Applications
This study presents easy methods of synthesizing silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles through chemical route in an aqueous medium under atmospheric condition at ambient temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized with different techniques, such as x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements. Experimental observations have revealed the absence of any metal oxide layer around the nanoparticles which are found to remain stable under ambient conditions. The featured properties, such as narrow size distribution, stability, make these nanoparticles potential candidates for the synthesis of effective nanofluids. The nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles synthesized through chemical route in a suitable base fluid. The thermal conductivity of nanofluids with different nanoparticles loading has been measured by transient hot-wire method, and the results have shown that the increasing trend of enhancement in thermal conductivity with respect to nanoparticles concentration is attainable only when the nanoparticles concentration is below some limiting value depending on the type of nanofluid. Beyond this limiting value of loading, the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid decreases due to pronounced agglomeration effect. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids over varying temperatures for a given volume fraction loading of nanoparticles have shown that the thermal conductivity increases markedly with the increase in temperature. Hence, nanofluids are likely to be much more promising at high-temperature applications.
KeywordsAg nanoparticles Cu nanoparticles nanofluid stability thermal conductivity
The financial support of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, through Grant No. SR/FTP/ETA-118/2011 for executing this project is thankfully acknowledged.
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