Laser Surface Treatment of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by HVOF on 316L Alloy

  • Reza Shoja-RazaviEmail author


This research aimed to study the effects of laser glazing treatment on microstructure, hardness, and oxidation behavior of Stellite 6 coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The as-sprayed Stellite 6 coating (ST-HVOF) was subjected to single-pass and multiple-pass laser treatments to achieve the optimum glazing parameters. Microstructural characterizations were performed by x-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Two-step optimization showed that laser treatment at the power of 200 W with a scan rate of 4 mm/s causes a surface layer with a thickness of 208 ± 32 µm to be remelted, while the underlying layers retain the original ST-HVOF coating structure. The obtained sample (ST-Glazing) exhibited a highly dense and uniform structure with an extremely low porosity of ~0.3%, much lower than that of ST-HVOF coating (2.3%). The average microhardness of ST-Glazing was measured to be 519 Hv0.3 indicating a 17% decrease compared to ST-HVOF (625 Hv0.3) due to the residual stress relief and dendrite coarsening from submicron size to ~3.4 µm after laser treatment. The lowest oxidation mass gain was obtained for ST-Glazing by 2 mg/cm2 after 8 cycles at 900 °C indicating 52 and 84% improvement in oxidation resistance in comparison to ST-HVOF and bare 316L steel substrates, respectively.


hardness HVOF laser treatment microstructure oxidation Stellite 6 


  1. 1.
    R. Singh, D. Kumar, S.K. Mishra, and S.K. Tiwari, Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 on Stainless Steel to Enhance Solid Particle Erosion and Cavitation Resistance, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2014, 251, p 87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Tiziani, L. Giordano, P. Matteazzi, and B. Badan, Laser Stellite Coatings on Austenitic Stainless Steels, Mater. Sci. Eng., 1987, 88, p 171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.A. Jeshvaghani, M. Shamanian, and M. Jaberzadeh, Enhancement of Wear Resistance of Ductile Iron Surface Alloyed by Stellite 6, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 2028–2033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Schwarz and H. Warlimont, A New Series of Co-Based Amorphous Alloys and Their Application as Cladding Materials, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 1997, 226, p 1098–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Sundararajan, S. Kuroda, T. Itagaki, and F. Abe, Steam Oxidation Resistance of Ni-Cr Thermal Spray Coatings on 9Cr-1Mo Steel. Part 1: 80Ni-20Cr, ISIJ Int., 2003, 43, p 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Gholipour, M. Shamanian, and F. Ashrafizadeh, Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Stellite 6 Cladding on 17-4 PH Stainless Steel, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509, p 4905–4909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    I. Radu and D.Y. Li, The Wear Performance of Yttrium-Modified Stellite 712 at Elevated Temperatures, Tribol. Int., 2007, 40, p 254–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Ahmed, H.L. de Villiers Lovelock, S. Davies, and N.H. Faisal, Influence of Re-HIPing on the Structure–Property Relationships of Cobalt-Based Alloys, Tribol. Int., 2013, 57, p 8–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Motallebzadeh, E. Atar, and H. Cimenoglu, Sliding Wear Characteristics of Molybdenum Containing Stellite 12 Coating at Elevated Temperatures, Tribol. Int., 2015, 91, p 40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.S. Sidhua, B.S. Sidhub, and S. Parkash, Characteristic Parameters of HVOF Sprayed NiCr and Stellite-6 Coatings on the Boiler Steels Using LPG as Fuel Gas, Int. J. Eng. Inf. Technol., 2010, 2, p 133–139Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B.S. Sidhu and S. Prakash, Erosion-Corrosion of Plasma as Sprayed and Laser Remelted Stellite-6 Coatings in a Coal Fired Boiler, Wear, 2006, 260, p 1035–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.S. Sidhu and S. Prakash, Studies on the Behaviour of Stellite-6 as Plasma Sprayed and Laser Remelted Coatings in Molten Salt Environment at 900 °C Under Cyclic Conditions, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2006, 172, p 52–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T.S. Sidhu, S. Prakash, and R.D. Agrawal, Hot Corrosion Studies of HVOF NiCrBSi and Stellite-6 Coatings on a Ni-Based Superalloy in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201, p 1602–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H.S. Sidhu, B.S. Sidhu, and S. Prakash, Solid Particle Erosion of HVOF Sprayed NiCr and Stellite-6 Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, 202, p 232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Stokes, The Theory and Application of the HVOF Thermal Spray Process, Dublin City University, Dublin, 2005Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.C. Berndt, W. Brindley, A.N. Goland, H. Herman, D.L. Houck, K. Jones, R.A. Miller, R. Neiser, W. Riggs, S. Sampath, M. Smith, and P. Spanne, Current Problems in Plasma Spray Processing, J. Therm. Spray., 1992, 1, p 341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Nowotny, L.M. Berger, and J. Spatzier, Coatings by Laser Cladding, Comprehensive Hard Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014, p 507–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.R. Ciubotariu, V.A. Serban, G. Marginean, D. Frunzaverde, New Structural and Morphological Properties of Thermally Sprayed Stellite Coatings After Laser Remelting, Proceeding of International Conference of Metal, Brno, Czech Republic, 2012.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Vuoristo, Thermal Spray Coating Process, Comprehensive Materials Processing, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014, p 229–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.-R. Ciubotariu, D. Frunzăverde, G. Mărginean et al., Optimization of the Laser Remelting Process for HVOF-Sprayed Stellite 6 Wear Resistant Coatings, Opt. Laser Technol., 2016, 77, p 98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.F. Ak, C. Tekmen, I. Ozdemir, H.S. Soykan, and E. Celik, NiCr Coatings on Stainless Steel by HVOF Technique, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 174, p 1070–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.H. Dent, A.J. Horlock, D.G. McCartney, and S.J. Harris, Microstructural Characterisation of a Ni-Cr-BC Based Alloy Coating Produced by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2001, 139, p 244–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Farnia, F.M. Ghaini, J.C. Rao, V. Ocelík, and J.T.M. De Hosson, Effect of Ta on the Microstructure and Hardness of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by Low Power Pulse Laser Treatments, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 213, p 278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Liu, X.J. Wu, S. Kapoor, M.X. Yao, and R. Collier, Effects of Temperature on the Hardness and Wear Resistance of High-Tungsten Stellite Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A., 2015, 46, p 587–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Cinca, E. López, S. Dosta, and J.M. Guilemany, Study of Stellite-6 Deposition by Cold Gas Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 232, p 891–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y.N. Wu, G. Zhang, Z.C. Feng, B.C. Zhang, Y. Liang, and F.J. Liu, Oxidation Behavior of Laser Remelted Plasma Sprayed NiCrAlY and NiCrAlY–Al 2 O 3 Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2001, 138, p 56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.M. Drezet and S. Mokadem, Marangoni Convection and Fragmentation in Laser Treatment, Mater. Sci. Forum, 2006, 508, p 257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Xu, M. Kutsuna, Z. Liu, and K. Yamada, Comparison Between Diode Laser and TIG Cladding of Co-Based Alloys on the SUS403 Stainless Steel, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201, p 1138–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Frenk and W. Kurz, Microstructural Effects on the Sliding Wear Resistance of a Cobalt-Based Alloy, Wear., 1994, 174, p 81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Hutasoit, W. Yan, R. Cottam, M. Brandt, and A. Blicblau, Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at the Interface Region of Laser-Clad Stellite 6 on Steel Using Nanoindentation, Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal., 2013, 2, p 328–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G.Y. Liang and T.T. Wong, Microstructure and Character of Laser Remelting of Plasma Sprayed Coating (Ni-Cr-B-Si) on Al-Si Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 1997, 89, p 121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.J. Young, High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2008Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Yamanaka, M. Mori, and A. Chiba, Surface Characterisation of Ni-Free Co–Cr–W-Based Dental Alloys Exposed to High Temperatures and the Effects of Adding Silicon, Corros. Sci., 2015, 94, p 411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Li, N. Tang, P. Tunthawiroon, Y. Koizumi, and A. Chiba, Characterisation of Oxide Films Formed on Co–29Cr–6Mo Alloy Used in Die-Casting Moulds for Aluminium, Corros. Sci., 2013, 73, p 72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P.D. Wood, H.E. Evans, and C.B. Ponton, Investigation into the Wear Behaviour of Stellite 6 During Rotation as an Unlubricated Bearing at 600 °C, Tribol. Int., 2011, 44, p 1589–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T.S. Sidhu, S. Prakash, and R.D. Agrawal, A Comparative Study of Hot Corrosion Resistance of HVOF Sprayed NiCrBSi and Stellite-6 Coated Ni-Based Superalloy at 900 °C, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2007, 445, p 210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K.L. Luthra, Kinetics of the Low Temperature Hot Corrosion of Co-Cr-Al Alloys, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1985, 132, p 1293–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringMalek-Ashtar University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations