Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 1726–1740 | Cite as

A Comparative Study of Ni49.9Ti50.1 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 Tube Actuators

  • J. S. Owusu-Danquah
  • A. F. Saleeb
  • B. Dhakal
  • S. A. PadulaII


A shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator typically has to operate for a large number of thermomechanical cycles due to its application requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the cyclic behavioral response of the SMA actuation material and the devices into which they are incorporated under extended cycling conditions. The present work is focused on the nature of the cyclic, evolutionary behavior of two widely used SMA actuator material systems: (1) a commercially available Ni49.9Ti50.1, and (2) a developmental high-temperature Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy. Using a recently developed general SMA modeling framework that utilizes multiple inelastic mechanisms, differences and similarities between the two classes of materials are studied, accounting for extended number of thermal cycles under a constant applied tensile/compressive force and under constant applied torque loading. From the detailed results of the simulations, there were significant qualitative differences in the evolution of deformation responses for the two different materials. In particular, the Ni49.9Ti50.1 tube showed significant evolution of the deformation response, whereas the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 tube stabilized quickly. Moreover, there were significant differences in the tension-compression-shear asymmetry properties in the two materials. More specifically, the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 tube exhibited much higher asymmetry effects, especially at low stress levels, compared to the Ni49.9Ti50.1. For both SMA tubes, the evolution of the deformation response under thermal cycling typically exhibited regions of initial transients, and subsequent evolution.


asymmetry in tension-compression-shear Ni49.9Ti50.1 Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 thermomechanical cycles tube actuators 



This work was supported by NASA GRC, the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic, Fixed-Wing, Project No. NNH10ZEA001N-SFW1, Grant No: NNX11AI57A to the University of Akron. The authors would like to acknowledge Drs. S. M. Arnold and Ronald Noebe for their technical guidance and programmatic support during the different phases of the project.


  1. 1.
    F.T. Calkins and J.H. Mabe, Shape Memory Alloy Based Morphing Aerostructures, J. Mech. Desi., 2010, 132(11), p 111012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.A. Williams, G. Shaw, and M. Elahinia, Control of an Automotive Shape Memory Alloy Mirror Actuator, Mechatronics, 2010, 20(5), p 527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Benafan, W.U. Notardonato, B.J. Meneghelli, and R. Vaidyanathan, Design and Development of a Shape Memory Alloy Activated Heat Pipe-Based Thermal Switch, Smart Mater. Struct., 2013, 22(10), p 105017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.J. Hartl and D.C. Lagoudas, Aerospace Applications of Shape Memory Alloys, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G, 2007, 221(4), p 535–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.A. Padula II, G. Bigelow, R.D. Noebe, D. Gaydosh, and A. Garg, Challenges and Progress in the Development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys Based on NiTiX Compositions for High-Force Actuator Applications, International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies, 7-11 May 2006 (Pacific Grove, CA)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.F. Saleeb, B. Dhakal, S. Dilibal, J.S. Owusu-Danquah, and S.A. Padula, II, On the Modeling of the Thermo-mechanical Responses of Four Different Classes of NiTi-Based Shape Memory Materials Using a General Multi-mechanism Framework, Mech. Mater., 2015, 80, p 67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Besseghini, E. Villa, and A. Tuissi, Ni-Ti-Hf Shape Memory Alloy, Effect of Aging and Thermal Cycling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1999, 273, p 390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G.S. Bigelow, A. Garg, S.A. Padula, II, D.J. Gaydosh, and R.D. Noebe, Load-Biased Shape-Memory and Superelastic Properties of a Precipitation Strengthened High-Temperature Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 Alloy, Scripta Mater., 2011, 64(8), p 725–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.E. Karaca, S.M. Saghaian, G. Ded, H. Tobe, B. Basaran, H.J. Maier, R.D. Noebe, and Y.I. Chumlyakov, Effects of Nanoprecipitation on the Shape Memory and Material Properties of an Ni-rich NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy, Acta Mater., 2013, 61(19), p 7422–7431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Ma, I. Karaman, and R.D. Noebe, High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys, Int. Mater. Rev., 2010, 55(5), p 257–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.Y.N. Sofla, D.M. Elzey, and H.N.G. Wadley, Two-Way Antagonistic Shape Actuation Based on the One-Way Shape Memory Effect, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 2008, 19(9), p 1017–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Nespoli, C.A. Biffi, R. Casati, E. Villa, A. Tuissi, and F. Passaretti, New Developments on Mini/Micro Shape Memory Actuators, Smart Actuation and Sensing Systems—Recent Advances and Future Challenges, G. Berselli, R. Vertechy, and G. Vassura, Ed., ISBN 978-953-51-0798-9Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.J. Arbogast, R.T. Ruggeri, and R.C. Bussom, Development of a ¼-Scale NiTinol Actuator for Reconfigurable Structures, Proceecdings of SPIE 6930, Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies 2008, 69300L, March19, 2008. doi: 10.1117/12.775929
  14. 14.
    P.A. Jardine, J.D. Bartley-Cho, and J.S. Flanagan, Improved Design and Performance of the SMA Torque Tube for the DARPA Smart Wing program, Proceedings of SPIE 3674, Smart Structures and Materials1999: Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies, Vol. 260, July 9, 1999. doi: 10.1117/12.351564
  15. 15.
    A.C. Keefe and G.P. Carman, Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Shape Memory Alloy Torque Tube Actuators, Smart Mater. Struct., 2000, 9(5), p 665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Patoor, A. Eberhardt, and M. Berveiller, Micromechanical Modelling of Superelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys, J. Phys. IV, 1996, 6(C1), p 277–292Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Huang, X. Gao, and L.C. Brinson, A Multivariant Micromechanical Model for SMAs Part 2. Polycrystal Model, Int. J. Plast, 2000, 16(10), p 1371–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Gao, M. Huang, and L.C. Brinson, A Simplified Multivariant SMA Model Based on Invariant Plane Nature of Martensitic Transformation, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 2002, 13(12), p 795–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.C. Lagoudas and P.B. Entchev, Modeling of Transformation-Induced Plasticity and Its Effect on the Behavior of Porous Shape Memory Alloys Part I: Constitutive Model for Fully Dense SMAs, Mech. Mater., 2004, 36(9), p 865–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Popov and D.C. Lagoudas, A 3-D Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys Incorporating Pseudoelasticity and Detwinning of Self-Accommodated Martensite, Int. J. Plast, 2007, 23(10), p 1679–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A. Qidwai and D.C. Lagoudas, Numerical Implementation of a Shape Memory Alloy Thermomechanical Constitutive Model Using Return Mapping Algorithms, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 2008, 47(6), p 1123–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.J. Hartl, J.T. Mooney, D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins, and J.H. Mabe, Use of a Ni60Ti Shape Memory Alloy for Active Jet Engine Chevron Application: II. Experimentally Validated Numerical Analysis, Smart Mater. Struct., 2010, 19(1), p 015021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.F. Saleeb, S.A. Padula, II, and A. Kumar, A Multi-axial, Multimechanism Based Constitutive Model for the Comprehensive Representation of the Evolutionary Response of SMAs Under General Thermomechanical Loading Conditions, Int. J. Plast., 2011, 27(5), p 655–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.F. Saleeb, B. Dhakal, M.S. Hosseini, and S.A. Padula, II, Large Scale Simulation of NiTi Helical Spring Actuators Under Repeated Thermomechanical Cycles, Smart Mater. Struct., 2013, 22(9), p 094006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.F. Saleeb, T.Y. Chang, W. Graf, and S. Yingyeunyong, A Hybrid/Mixed Model for Non-linear Shell Analysis and Its Applications to Large-Rotation Problems, Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 1990, 29(2), p 407–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ABAQUS, Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual, SIMULIA Inc, RI, 2012Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.A. Padula, II, D. Gaydosh, A. Saleeb, and B. Dhakal, Transients and Evolution in NiTi, Exper. Mech., 2014, 54(5), p 709–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.F. Saleeb, B. Dhakal, S.A. Padula, and D.J. Gaydosh, Calibration of a Three-Dimensional Multimechanism Shape Memory Alloy Material Model for the Prediction of the Cyclic “Attraction” Character in Binary NiTi Alloys, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 2013, 24(1), p 70–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.F. Saleeb, B. Dhakal, S.A. Padula, II, and D.J. Gaydosh, Calibration of SMA Material Model for the Prediction of the ‘Evolutionary’ Load-Bias Behavior Under Conditions of Extended Thermal Cycling, Smart Mater. Struct., 2013, 22(9), p 094017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.A. Padula, II, S. Qiu, D. Gaydosh, R.D. Noebe, G. Bigelow, A. Garg, and R. Vaidyanathan, Effect of Upper-Cycle Temperature on the Load-Biased, Strain-Temperature Response of NiTi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2012, 43(12), p 4610–4621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Noebe, Pitfalls and Potential for Developing Stable High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys through Nano-Precipitate Strengthening, 2012 Technical Conference Proceedings, NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, March 13-15, 2012 (Cleveland, OH)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Sittner, Y. Hara, and M. Tokuda, Experimental Study on the Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystal Induced by Combined External Forces, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, 26(11), p 2923–2935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W.F. Chen and A.F. Saleeb, Constitutive Equations for Engineering Materials 2nd Revised edn, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Owusu-Danquah
    • 1
  • A. F. Saleeb
    • 1
  • B. Dhakal
    • 1
  • S. A. PadulaII
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of AkronAkronUSA
  2. 2.N.A.S.A. Glenn Research CenterClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations