Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 23, Issue 10, pp 3489–3496 | Cite as

Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Properties of Pure and Mn-doped ZnO Nanocrystalline Particles

  • J. Saydi
  • M. Karimi
  • M. Mazhdi
  • J. Seidi
  • F. Mazhdi


Nanocrystalline ZnO and Mn (1 wt.%)-doped ZnO particles have been synthesized via reverse micelle method. The structural, particulate, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been studied by XRD, TEM, UV-Vis, and PL spectroscopy. The obtained data indicate the synthesis of the pure nanoparticles structure with wurtzite structure, average particle size of 18-21 nm, and high optical quality. Gas sensing properties of the nanocrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO particles toward gasoline and ethanol vapors have been investigated at different temperatures and concentrations. The results show that the optimum working temperature of the gas sensors based on ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO particles are about 633 and 620 K toward ethanol vapor and about 560 and 608 K toward gasoline vapor, respectively. Based on the results, although Mn impurities reduce the sensitivity of the ZnO gas sensor, they cause sensor to saturate at much higher gas concentration.


gas sensor Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystalline particles photoluminescence sensitivity ZnO 



The financial support of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council and Islamic Azad University is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    S. Maensiri, C. Masingboon, V. Promarak, and S. Seraphin, Synthesis and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline V-Doped ZnO Powders, Opt. Mater., 2007, 29, p 1700–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Kumar, S. Kumar, H.S. Bhatti, A. Gupta, and J.K. Sharma, Synthesis of ZnO:Mn Nanoparticles, Nanobelts and Nanorods, J. Ovonic Res., 2008, 4, p 101–105Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Kumbhakar, D. Singh, C.S. Tiwary, and A.K. Mitra, Chemical Synthesis and Visible Photoluminescence Emission from Monodispersed ZnO Nanoparticles, Chalcogenide Lett., 2008, 5, p 387–394Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.G. Lu, P. Chang, and Z. Fan, Metal Oxide Nanowires: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Mater. Sci. Eng. R, 2006, 52, p 49–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z.L. Wang, Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: Growth, Properties and Applications, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 2004, 16, p R829–R858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W.E. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Ghamdi, Synthesis of CdZnO Thin Film as a Potential Candidate for Optical Switches, Opt. Laser Technol., 2010, 42, p 1134–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Karimi, J. Saydi, M. Mahmoodi, J. Seidi, M. Ezzati, S. Shamsi Anari, and B. Ghasemian, A Comparative Study on Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO and Zn0.94Cd0.06O Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. Sol., 2013, 74, p 1392–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Karimi, V. Jahangir, M. Ezzati, J. Saydi, and M. Behtaj Lejbini, Zn0.94Cd0.06O Nanoparticles with Various Structures, Morphologies and Optical Properties Toward MB Optodecolorization, Opt. Mater., 2014, 36, p 697–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O.D. Jayakumar, I.K. Gopalakrishnan, R.M. Kadam, A. Vinu, A. Asthana, and A.K. Tyagi, Magnetization and Structural Studies of Mn Doped ZnO Nanoparticles: Prepared by Reverse Micelle Method, J. Cryst. Growth, 2007, 300, p 358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Xu, J. Tamaki, N. Miura, and N. Yamazor, Grain Size Effects on Gas Sensitivity of Porous SnO2-Based Elements, Sens. Actuators B, 1991, 3, p 147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Zhang and M. Liu, Effect of Particle Size and Dopant on Properties of SnO2-Based Gas Sensors, Sens. Actuators B, 2000, 69, p 144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Xu, Q. Pan, Y. Shun, and Z. Tian, Grain Size Control and Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Gas Sensor, Sens. Actuators B, 2000, 66, p 277–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z. Khorsand, W.H.A. Majid, M.E. Abrishami, and R. Yousefi, X-ray Analysis of ZnO Nanoparticles by Williamson-Hall and Size-Strain Plot Methods, Solid State Sci., 2011, 13, p 251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.I. Park, G.C. Yi, and H.M. Jang, Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxial Growth and Photoluminescent Properties of Zn1−xMgxO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.49) Thin Films, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2001, 79, p 2022–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O.K. Tan, W. Cao, Y. Hu, and W. Zhu, Nano-structured Oxide Semiconductor Materials for Gas-Sensing Applications, Ceram. Inter., 2004, 30, p 1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Mohamadrezaei and R. Afzalzadeh, Ethanol Sensing Properties of Pure and Ag Nanoparticles-Doped Zinc Oxide with Noble Metal Catalytic Contacts, Sens. Lett., 2010, 8, p 777–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Hongsith, C. Viriyaworasakul, P. Mangkorntong, N. Mangkorntong, and S. Choopun, Ethanol Sensor Based on ZnO and Au-Doped ZnO Nanowires, Ceram. Int., 2008, 34, p 823–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Takata, D. Tsubone, and H. Yanagida, Dependence of Electrical Conductivity of ZnO on Degree of Sintering, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1976, 59, p 4–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z. Yang, Y. Huang, G. Chen, Z. Guo, S. Cheng, and S. Huang, Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on Al-doped ZnO Nanomaterial with Many Gas Diffusing Channels, Sens. Actuators B, 2009, 140, p 549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Santra, P.K. Guha, S.Z. Ali, P. Hiralal, H.E. Unalan, J.A. Covington, G.A.J. Amaratunga, W.I. Milne, J.W. Gardner, and F. Udrea, ZnO Nanowires Grown on SOI, CMOS Substrate for Ethanol Sensing, Sens. Actuators B, 2010, 146, p 559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T.J. Hsueh and C.L. Hsu, Fabrication of Gas Sensing Devices with ZnO Nanostructure by the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Zinc Particles, Sens. Actuators B, 2008, 131, p 572–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Saydi
    • 1
  • M. Karimi
    • 2
  • M. Mazhdi
    • 3
  • J. Seidi
    • 4
  • F. Mazhdi
    • 5
  1. 1.Young Researchers ClubIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Nanotechnology & Advanced MaterialsMaterials and Energy Research CenterKarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Faculty of SciencesI.H.UTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIslamic Azad UniversityIlamIran
  5. 5.Department of Electrical and Robotics EngineeringShahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran

Personalised recommendations