Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation
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In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process was introduced. The model is of a modular type and comprises five modules, each designed to handle a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: (i) electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; (ii) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric-arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; (iii) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (iv) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (v) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. In the present work, the GMAW process model has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic-limit (i.e., penetration-resistance) of the weld. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel, MIL A46100. The model predictions concerning the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with prior observations and general expectations.
Keywordsballistic limit gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process modeling welded all-metal armor
The material presented in this paper is based on work supported by two Army Research Office sponsored grants entitled “Friction Stir Welding Behavior of Selected 2000-series and 5000-series Aluminum Alloys” (Contract Number W911NF-11-1-0207), and “Concept Validation and Optimization for a Vent-based Mine-blast Mitigation System” (Contract Number W911NF-11-1-0518). The authors are indebted to Dr. Ralph A. Anthenien, Jr. and Dr. Bryan Glaz of ARO for their continuing support and interest in the present work.
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