Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 2864–2870 | Cite as

Investigations of High Temperature Wear Mechanisms for Tool Steel Under Open-Sliding Contact

Article

Abstract

During hot working processes, working tools are subjected to severe conditions. Wear is one of the major life limiting factors of the hot working tools. The identification and understanding of the wear mechanism are extremely important for solving problems related to the hot working process. The ultimate aim of this paper is to assess some wear mechanisms of the tool steel used in hot drawing. The tribological tests were performed on high temperature pin-on-disc tribometer with an open-sliding contact for a simulation of hot-drawing process with a refreshed contact surface. The pin material was X40 CrMoV5 steel and the disc material was Fe 360B steel. Experiments were carried out for different disc temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C, a constant sliding speed of 50 rev/min and a constant normal load of 70 N. The evolution surface damage and oxides tribolayers have been investigated by SEM and EDS. The results have shown that an increase in test temperature facilitates the generation of oxide and assists in the compaction of the debris, thus producing a wear protective layer, and therefore, a reduction in friction coefficient.

Keywords

friction high temperature open contact oxides tool steel wear 

References

  1. 1.
    A. Pauschitz, M. Roy, and F. Franek, Mechanism of Sliding Wear of Metals and Alloys at Elevated Temperatures, Tribol. Int., 2008, 41, p 584–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.H. Beynon, Tribology of Hot Metal Forming, Tribol. Int., 1998, 31, p 73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Pierzgalski and Q. Luo, Studies of High Temperature Sliding Wear of Metallic Dissimilar Interfaces, Tribol. Int., 2006, 38, p 812–823Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Muñoz-Escalona, N. Díaz, and Z. Cassier, Prediction of Tool Wear Mechanisms in Face Milling AISI, 1045 Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2012, 21, p 797–808Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Barrau, C. Boher, R. Gras, and F. Rezaï-Aria, Analysis of the Friction and Wear Behaviour of Hot Work Tool Steel for Forging, Wear, 2003, 255, p 1444–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Vergne, C. Boher, C. Levaillant, and R. Gras, Analysis of the Friction and Wear Behavior of Hot Work Tool Scale: Application to the Hot Rolling Process, Wear, 2001, 250, p 322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.J. Blau, Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials, Tribol. Int., 2010, 43, p 1203–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Zhi, Z. Jie, J. Jin-jin, H. Liang, and Y. Hai, The Effect of Temperature Condition on Material Deformation and Die Wear, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2013, 22, p 2019–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Chang and F. Wei, Review High Temperature Oxidation of Low Alloy Steels, J. Mater. Sci., 1989, 24, p 14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F.H. Sttot, The Role of Oxidation in the Wear of Alloys, Tribol. Int., 1998, 31, p 61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Jiang, F.H. Stott, and M.M. Stack, A Generic Model for Dry Sliding Wear of Metals at Elevated Temperatures, Wear, 2004, 256, p 973–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Ilo, A. Tomala, and E. Badisch, Oxidative Wear Kinetics in Unlubricated Steel Sliding Contact, Tribol. Int., 2011, 44, p 1208–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Marzouki, C. Kowandy, and C. Richard, Experimental Simulation of Tool/Product Interface During Hot Drawing, Wear, 2007, 262, p 235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Z. Baccouch, R. Mnif, R. Elleuch, and C. Richard, Analysis of Friction, Wear and Oxidation Behaviour of X40CrMoV5/Fe360B Steel Couple in an Open-Sliding Contact, J. Eng. Tribol., 2014, 228, p 276–287Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Nakamuraa, K. Hirao, Y. Yamauchi, and S. Kanzaki, Tribological Behaviour of Unidirectionally Aligned Silicon Nitride Against Steel, Wear, 2002, 25, p 484–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Kong, E. Yoon, and O. Kwon, Self-formation of protective oxide films at dry sliding mild steel surfaces under a medium vacuum, Wear, 1996, 181–183, p 325–333Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Vergne, C. Boher, R. Gras, and C. Levaillant, Influence of Oxides on Friction in Hot Rolling: Experimental Investigations and Tribological Modeling, Wear, 2006, 260, p p957–p975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O. Barreau, Etude du frottement et de l’usure d’acier a` outils de travail à chaud. Thèse à ` l’Institut NationalPolytechnique de Toulouse, 14 Décembre 2004Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    I.A. Inman, S. Datta, H.L. Du, J.S. Burnell-Gray, and Q. Luo, Microscopy of Glazed Layers Formed During High Temperature Sliding Wear at 750°C, Wear, 2003, 254, p 461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.A. Fontalvo and C. Mitterer, The Effects of Oxide Forming Alloying Elements on the High Temperature Wear of a Hot Work Steel, Wear, 2005, 258, p 1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. Joos, C. Boher, and C. Vergne, Assessment of Oxide Scales Influences on Wear Damage of HSM Work Rolls, Wear, 2007, 263, p 198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Munther and J.G. Lenard, The Effects of Scaling on Interfacial Friction in Hot Rolling of Steels, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1999, 88, p 105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.Q. Wang, M.X. Wei, and Y.T. Zhao, Effects of the Tribo-oxide and Matrix on Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics and Mechanisms of a Cast Steel, Wear, 2010, 269, p 424–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Lepesant, C. Boher, Y. Berthier, and F. Rezai-Aria, A Phenomenological Model of the Third Body Particles Circulation in a High Temperature Contact, Wear, 2013, 298–299, p 66–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire des Systèmes ElectromécaniquesEcole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Sfax (ENIS)SfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Laboratoire Roberval UMR 7337Université de Technologie de Compiègne (UTC)CompiègneFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Mécanique et de Rhéologie EA2640Université François Rabelais de Tours (UFRT)ToursFrance

Personalised recommendations