Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 3890–3901 | Cite as

Friction Stir-Welded Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Physical State



A356 and 6061 aluminum alloys were joined by friction stir welding at constant tool rotational rate with different tool-traversing speeds. Thermomechanical data of welding showed that increment in tool speed reduced the pseudo heat index and temperature at weld nugget (WN). On the other hand, volume of material within extrusion zone, strain rate, and Zenner Hollomon parameter were reduced with decrease in tool speed. Optical microstructure of WN exhibited nearly uniform dispersion of Si-rich particles, fine grain size of 6061 Al alloy, and disappearance of second phase within 6061 Al alloy. With enhancement in welding speed, matrix grain size became finer, yet size of Si-rich particles did not reduce incessantly. Size of Si-rich particles was governed by interaction time between tool and substrate. Mechanical property of WN was evaluated. It has been found that the maximum joint efficiency of 116% with respect to that of 6061 alloy was obtained at an intermediate tool-traversing speed, where matrix grain size was significantly fine and those of Si-rich particles were substantially small.


aluminum alloys friction stir welding light microscopy mechanical characterization 



The authors are indebted to Director-NML for his kind support during the study, as well as providing permission to publish the research study. The cooperation received from Dr. A. K. Ray during investigation is also gratefully acknowledged. The authors are deeply indebted for the financial support received from the Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi through sanction letter no. SR/S3ME/028/2007 dated 08/11/2007 to carry out the investigation.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ghosh
    • 1
  • Md. M. Husain
    • 1
  • K. Kumar
    • 2
  • S. V. Kailas
    • 3
  1. 1.Materials Science & Technology DivisionCSIR—National Metallurgical LaboratoryJamshedpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science & EngineeringUniversity of Northern TexasDentonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

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