Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 2293–2303 | Cite as

Use of DL-EPR Test to Assess Sensitization Resistance of AISI 409M Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints



The susceptibility of 409M grade ferritic stainless steels to sensitization due to welding was investigated. Joints were fabricated by gas tungsten arc welding, friction stir welding, laser beam welding, and electron beam welding processes. Double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test was carried out for determining the degree of sensitization of welded joints. The experimental result reveals that, the friction stir welded joint is less prone to sensitization, when compared to the other joints.


ferritic stainless steel sensitization welding 



The authors wish to place their sincere thanks to the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India for the financial support through Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientists R&D project (SR/FTP/ETA043/2009) to carry out this investigation.


  1. 1.
    J.C. Lippold and D. J. Kotecki, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, Wiley, New York, 2005, p 87–88Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Deleu, A. Dhooge, E. Taban, and E. Kaluc, Possibilities and Limitations to Improve the Weldability of Low Carbon 12Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel for Expanded Industrial Applications, Weld. World, 2009, 53, p R198–R208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.O.H. Amuda and S. Mridha, An Overview of Sensitization Dynamics in Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds, Int. J. Corr., 2011, 2011, 305793. doi: 10.1155/2011/305793 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.K. Lakshminarayanan and V. Balasubramanian, Assessment of Sensitization Resistance of AISI, 409M Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints Using Modified Strauss Test, Mater. Des., 2012, 39, p 175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.A. Lula and J.A. Davis, Intergranular Corrosion in 12 Percent Chromium Ferritic Stainless Steels, Intergranular Corrosion of Stainless Alloys. ASTM STP 656, R.F. Steigerwald, Ed., ASTM, 1978, p 233–247Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Van Warmelo, D. Nolan, and J. Norrish, Mitigation of sensitisation Effects in Unstabilised 12% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 464, p 157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Cihal, A Potentiokinetic Reactivation Method for Predicting the I.C.C. and I.G.S.C.C. Sensitivity of Stainless Steels and Alloys, Corr. Sci., 1980, 20, p 737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.J. Tomlinson and S.J. Matthews, Intergranular Corrosion of Welds in Type 405 Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Sci., 1988, 23, p 2064–2068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Mukherjee and T.K. Pal, Influence of Heat Input on Martensite Formation and Impact Property of Ferritic-Austenitic Dissimilar Weld Metals, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, 28, p 343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Sahoo, K. Ravi, and S. Srikanth, Corrosion of 12% Ferritic Steel and Weld Joints in H2SO4 Environments, Steel Grips, 2008, 6, p 441–444Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Frangini and A. Mignone, Modified Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Method for Detecting Sensitization in 12 wt.% Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels, Corrosion, 1992, 48, p 716–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Poulson, The Sensitization of Ferritic Steels Containing Less Than 12% Cr, Corr. Sci., 1978, 18, p 371–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H.T. Lee and J.L. Wu, The Effects of Peak Temperature and Cooling Rate on the Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion of Alloy 690 by Laser Beam and Gas Tungsten arc Welding, Corr. Sci., 2009, 51, p 439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Zheng, X. Ye, L. Jiang, B. Wang, Z. Liu, and G. Wang, Study on Microstructure of Low Carbon 12% Chromium Stainless Steel in High Temperature Heat-Affected Zone, Mater. Des., 2010, 31, p 4836–4841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.L. Greef and M. Du Toit, Looking at the Sensitization of 11–12% Chromium EN 1.4003 Stainless Steels During Welding, Weld. J., 2006, 243-s–251-sGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.K. Lakshminarayanan and V. Balasubramanian, Characteristics of Laser Beam and Friction Stir Welded AISI, 409M Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2012, 21, p 530–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Dischino and J.M. Kenny, Effect of Grain Size on the Corrosion Resistance of a High Nitrogen-Low Nickel Austenitic Stainless Steel, J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 2002, 21, p 1969–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Beltran, J.G. Maldonado, and L.E. Murr, Effects of Strain and Grain Size on Carbide Precipitation and Corrosion Sensitization Behavior in 304 Stainless Steel, Act. Mater., 1997, 45, p 4351–4160Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSSN college of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR)Annamalai UniversityChidambaramIndia

Personalised recommendations