Advertisement

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 2131–2140 | Cite as

Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams for 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Process

  • Hongzhou Li
  • Xin Wu
  • Guangyao LiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steels possesses many superior characteristics over conventional room temperature forming process and is fairly attractive in improving strength and reducing weight of vehicle body product. However, the mechanical and failure behavior of hot stamping boron steel 22MnB5 are both strongly affected by strain hardening, temperature, strain rate, and microstructure. In this paper, the material yield and flow behavior of 22MnB5 within the temperature and strain rate range of hot stamping are described by an advanced anisotropic yield criterion combined with two different hardening laws. The elevated temperature forming limit diagram (ET-FLD) is constructed using the M-K theoretical analysis. The developed model was validated by comparing our predicted result with experimental data in the literature under isothermal conditions. Based on the verified model, the influence of temperature and strain rate on the forming limit curve for 22MnB5 steel under equilibrium isothermal condition are discussed. Furthermore, the transient forming limit diagram is developed by performing a transient forming process simulation under non-isothermal transient condition.

Keywords

BBC2005 yield function forming limit diagrams hot stamping process mechanical characterization non-isothermal deformation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The support from the National 973 Project of China (2010CB328005), Key Project of NSFC of China (61232014), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11202072) and the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (20120161120005) is acknowledged. The first author is also grateful for the supports from China Scholarship Council (2011613057).

References

  1. 1.
    H. Karbasian and A.E. Tekkaya, A Review on Hot Stamping, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2010, 210, p 2103–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Pellegrini, J. Lechler, A. Ghiotti, S. Bruschi, and M. Merklein, Interlaboratory Comparison of Forming Limit Curves for Hot Stamping of High Strength Steels, Key Eng. Mater., 2009, 410, p 297–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.P. Keeler and W.A. Backofen, Plastic Instability and Fracture in Sheets Stretched Over Rigid Punches, ASM Trans. Q., 1963, 56(1), p 25–48Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Goodwin, Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming Problems in the Press Shop, SAE Paper, 680093, 1968Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. Marciniak and K. Kuczynski, Limit Strains in the Processes of Stretch-Forming Sheet Metal, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1967, 9, p 609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.B. Stoughton and X. Zhu, Review of Theoretical Models of the Strain-Based FLD and Their Relevance to the Stress-Based FLD, Int. J. Plast, 2004, 20(8–9), p 1463–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.C. Butuc, J.J. Gracio, and A. Barata da Rocha, A Theoretical Study on Forming Limit Diagrams Prediction, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2003, 142(3), p 714–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Banabic, S. Comsa, P. Jurco, G. Cosovici, L. Paraianu, and D. Julean, FLD Theoretical Model Using a New Anisotropic Yield Criterion, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2004, 157–158, p 23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Ganjiani and A. Assempour, An Improved Analytical Approach for Determination of Forming Limit Diagrams Considering the Effects of Yield Functions, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 182(1–3), p 598–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Ahmadi, A. Eivani, and A. Akbarzadeh, An Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams Using New BBC Yield Criteria and MK Analysis, Comput. Mater. Sci., 2009, 44(4), p 1272–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Kröhn, S. Leen, and T. Hyde, A Superplastic Forming Limit Diagram Concept for Ti-6Al-4V, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. L, 2007, 221(4), p 251–264Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Lee, Y. Kwon, S. Kang, S. Kim, and J. Lee, Forming Limit of AZ31 Alloy Sheet and Strain Rate on Warm Sheet Metal Forming, J. Mater. Process. Techol., 2008, 201(1), p 431–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Zhang, L. Leotoing, D. Guines, and E. Ragneau, Theoretical and Numerical Study of Strain Rate Influence on AA5083 Formability, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2009, 209(8), p 3849–3858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Palumbo, D. Sorgente, and L. Tricarico, A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of AZ31 Formability at Elevated Temperatures Using a Constant Strain Rate Test, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(3), p 1308–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Banabic, F. Barlat, O. Cazacu, and T. Kuwabara, Advances in Anisotropy and Formability, Int. J. Mater. Form., 2010, 3(3), p 165–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Merklein, J. Lecher, V. Gödel, S. Bruschi, A. Ghiotti, and A. Turetta, Mechanical Properties and Plastic Anisotropy of the Quenchenable High Strength Steel 22MnB5 at Elevated Temperatures, Key Eng. Mater., 2007, 344, p 79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Turetta, S. Bruschi, and A. Ghiotti, Anisotropic and Mechanical Behavior of 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Operations, ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, E. Cueto, F. Chinesta, Ed., 2007, p 217–222Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Banabic, H. Aretz, D. Comsa, and L. Paraianu, An Improved Analytical Description of Orthotropy in Metallic Sheets, Int. J. Plast., 2005, 21(3), p 493–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Merklein and J. Lechler, Determination of Material and Process Characteristics for Hot Stamping Processes of Quenchenable Ultra High Strength Steels with Respect to a FE-Based Process Design, SAE World Congress: Innovations in Steel and Applications of Advanced High Strength Steels for Automobile Structures, Paper No. 2008-01-0853, 2008, p 411–426Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Banabic, Sheet Metal Forming Processes: Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Simulation, Springer, New York, 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Hoff, Approximate Analysis of Structures in the Presence of Moderately Large Creep Deformations, Q. Appl. Math., 1954, 12(1), p 49–55Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F.H. Norton, The Creep of Steel at High Temperatures, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1929Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Molinari and G. Ravichandran, Constitutive Modeling of High-Strain-Rate Deformation in Metals Based on the Evolution of an Effective Microstructural Length, Mech. Mater., 2005, 37(7), p 737–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Ganjiani and A. Assempour, Implementation of a Robust Algorithm for Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2008, 17(1), p 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L.G. Aranda, I. Chaste, and J.F. Pascual, Experiments and Simulation of Hot Stamping of Quenchable Steels, Adv. Technol. Plast., 2002, 2, p 1135–1140Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Merklein and J. Lechler, Investigation of the Thermo-mechanical Properties of Hot Stamping Steels, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2006, 177(1–3), p 452–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Min, J. Lin, J. Li, and W. Bao, Investigation on Hot Forming Limits of High Strength Steel 22MnB5, Comput. Mater. Sci., 2010, 49(2), p 326–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Lechler, M. Merklein, and M. Geiger, Determination of Thermal and Mechanical Material Properties of Ultra-high Strength Steels for Hot Stamping, Steel Res. Int., 2009, 79(2), p 98–104Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Bariani, S. Bruschi, A. Ghiotti, and A. Turetta, Testing Formability in the Hot Stamping of HSS, CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 2008, 57(1), p 265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Verleysen, J. Peirs, J. Van Slycken, K. Faes, and L. Duchene, Effect of Strain Rate on the Forming Behaviour of Sheet Metals, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2011, 211(8), p 1457–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Armijo, Minimization of Functions Having Lipschitz Continuous First Partial Derivatives, Pac. J. Math., 1966, 16(1), p 1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.H. Press, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle BodyHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations