The main difficulty when joining magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) alloys by fusion welding lies in the formation of oxide films and brittle intermetallic in the bond region which affects the integrity of the joints. However, diffusion bonding is a suitable process to join these two materials as no such characteristic defects are produced at the joints. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, holding time, and surface roughness of the specimen play a major role in determining the joint strength. In this investigation, an attempt was made to develop empirical relationships to predict the strengths of diffusion bonded AZ80 magnesium and AA6061 aluminum alloys dissimilar joints from the process parameters based on central composite factorial design. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters to attain the maximum shear strength and bonding strength of the joint. From this investigation, it was found that the bonds produced with the temperature of 405.87 °C, pressure of 7.87 MPa, holding time of 29.02 min and surface roughness of 0.10 μm exhibited maximum shear strength and bonding strength of 57.70 and 76.90 MPa, respectively. The intermetallic formation at the interface was identified.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
J. Wang, Y. Li, P. Liu, and H. Geng, Microstructure and XRD Analysis in the Interface Zone of Mg/Al Diffusion Bonding, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 205, p 146–150
P. Liu, Y. Li, H. Geng, and J. Wang, A Study of Phase Constitution Near the Interface of Mg/Al Vacuum Diffusion Bonding, Mater. Lett., 2005, 59, p 2001–2005
H. Somekawa, H. Watanabe, T. Mukai, and K. Higashi, Low Temperature Diffusion Bonding in a Super Plastic AZ31 Magnesium Alloy, Scripta Mater., 2003, 48, p 1249–1254
M.S. Yeh and T.S. Chuang, Low Pressure Diffusion Bonding of SAE 316 Stainless Steel by Inserting a Super Plastic Interlayer, Scripta Metall. Mater., 1995, 33(8), p 1277–1281
J.C. Feng, B.G. Zhang, Y.Y. Qian, and P. He, Microstructure and Strength of Diffusion Bonded Joints of Ti Al Base Alloy to Steel, Mater. Charact., 2002, 48, p 401–406
K.A. Peterson, I. Dutta, and M. Chenb, Processing and Characterization of Diffusion-Bonded Al-Si Interfaces, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2004, 145, p 99–108
Y. Li, P. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Ma, XRD and SEM Analysis Near the Diffusion Bonding Interface of Mg/Al Dissimilar Materials, Vacuum, 2008, 82, p 15–19
G. Mahendran, V. Balasubramanian, and T. Senthilvelan, Developing Diffusion Bonding Windows for Joining AZ31B Magnesium-AA2024 Aluminium Alloys, Mater. Des., 2009, 30, p 1240–1244
M. Joseph Fernandus, T. Senthilkumar, and V. Balasubramanian, Developing Temperature-Time and Pressure-Time Diagrams for Diffusion Bonding AZ80 Magnesium and AA6061 Aluminium Alloys, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 1651–1656
G. Mahendran, V. Balasubramanian, and T. Senthilvelan, Influences of Diffusion Bonding Process Parameters on Bond Characteristics of Mg-Cu Dissimilar Joints, Trans. Non-Ferrous Met. Soc. China, 2010, 20, p 997–1005
G. Mahendran, V. Balasubramanian, and S. Babu, Optimising Diffusion Bonding Process Parameters to Attain Maximum Strength in Al-Cu Dissimilar Joints Using Response Surface Methodology, Int. J. Manuf. Res., 2010, 5, p 181–198
J. Grum and J.M. Slabe, The Use of Factorial Design and Response Surface Methodology for Fast Determination of Optimal Heat Treatment Conditions of Different Ni-Co-Mo Surfaced Layers, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2004, 155, p 2026–2032
G. Mahendran, S. Babu, and V. Balasubramanian, Analyzing the Effect of Diffusion Bonding Process Parameters on Bond Characteristics of Mg-Al Dissimilar Joints, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2010, 19, p 657–665
S. Babu, K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, and M. Balasubramanian, Optimizing Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Maximize Tensile Strength of AA2219 Aluminium Alloy Joints, Met. Mater. Int., 2009, 15(2), p 321–330
S. Rajakumar, C. Muralidharan, and V. Balasubramanian, Optimization of the Friction-Stir-Welding Process and Tool Parameters to Attain a Maximum Tensile Strength of AA7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy, J. Eng. Manuf., 2010, 224, p 1175–1191
V. Gunaraj and N. Murugan, Application of Response Surface Methodology for Predicting Weld Bead Quality in Submerged Arc Welding of Pipes, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1999, 88, p 266–275
M. Balasubramanian, V. Jayabalan, and V. Balasubramanian, Developing Mathematical Models to Predict Tensile Properties of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy, Meter. Des., 2008, 29(1), p 92–97
P.K. Palani and N. Murugan, Optimization of Weld Bead Geometry for Stainless Steel Claddings Deposited by FCAW, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 190, p 291–299
L.M. Zhao and Z.D. Zhang, Effect of Zn Alloy Interlayer on Interface Microstructure and Strength of Diffusion-Bonded Mg-Al Joints, Scripta Mater., 2008, 58, p 283–286
C.L. Tien and S.W. Lin, Optimization of Process Parameters of Titanium Dioxide Films by Response Surface Methodology, Opt. Commun., 2006, 266, p 574–581
T.-H. Hou, C.-H. Su, and W.-L. Liu, Parameters Optimization of a Nano-Particle Wet Milling Process Using the Taguchi Method, Response Surface Method and Genetic Algorithm, Powder Technol., 2007, 173, p 153–162
A.K. Lakshminarayanan and V. Balasubramaian, Comparison of RSM with ANN in Predicting Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded AA7039 Aluminium Alloy Joints, Trans. Non-Ferrous Met. Soc. China, 2009, 19, p 9–18
A.S. Sarigul and A. Secgin, Study on the Application of the Acoustic Design Sensitivity Analysis of Vibrating Bodies, Appl. Acoust., 2004, 65, p 1037–1056
M. Jayaraman, R. Sivasubramanian, V. Balasubramanian, and A.K. Lakshminarayanan, Prediction of Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded A356 Cast Aluminium Alloy Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network, J. Manuf. Sci. Prod. Res., 2008, 9, p 45–60
The authors are grateful to the Center for Materials Joining and Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India for extending the facilities of metal joining and Material Testing to carry out this investigation.
About this article
Cite this article
Joseph Fernandus, M., Senthilkumar, T., Balasubramanian, V. et al. Optimizing Diffusion Bonding Parameters in AA6061-T6 Aluminum and AZ80 Magnesium Alloy Dissimilar Joints. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 21, 2303–2315 (2012) doi:10.1007/s11665-012-0190-7
- aluminum alloy
- diffusion bonding
- magnesium alloy
- response surface methodology