Dual-Band Microwave Sensor for Investigation of Liquid Impurity Concentration Using a Metamaterial Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

  • Yogita Khanna
  • Y. K. AwasthiEmail author


In this article, a dual-band microwave sensor using a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) is presented that determines the concentration of any liquid bi-mixture like water in ethanol and urea in whole milk. The proposed sensor is unique as it is designed, simulated and fabricated using a single-metamaterial cell structure to operate at dual frequency, i.e. 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz using an industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. The sensor is fabricated on FR4 substrate using a typical photolithography technique, and simulated results are in agreement with the measured results. Investigation of the sensing mechanism for impurity concentration (i.e. water in ethanol or urea in milk) is performed by placing the sample mixture in the pipette placed across from the sensor. As microwave sensors respond to the change in the dielectric constant of the nearby materials, when the liquid mixture concentration varies, there is shifting in the resonant frequency at which the sensor is designed. The proposed sensor is unique due to dual-band resonance, reusability, compactness (12 mm × 20 mm), low cost, noninvasiveness, nondestructiveness, and a user-friendly approach.


Bi-mixture liquid CSRR dual-band resonator dielectric characterization sample under test 


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringManav Rachna UniversityFaridabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringManav Rachna International Institute of Research and StudiesFaridabadIndia

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