Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 669–678 | Cite as

Structural Properties of (Sn1−xMgxO) Thin Films and Optical Parameter Dependence with Gamma Ray Irradiation

  • Ziad T. KhodairEmail author
  • Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori
  • Abdulsalam M. Hassan
  • Mutaz Salih Aljuboori
  • Fadhil I. Sharrad


Tin-Magnesium oxide (Sn1−xMgxO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique, whereupon the samples were irradiated by gamma rays using a Co-60 radioactive source. X-ray diffraction showed that all prepared films were polycrystalline in nature with a tetragonal structure and a preferential growth of crystallites in the (110) plane. In general, the average crystallite size, lattice constants, dislocation density and crystallite density decreased with increasing Mg doping from 0% to 8%. Further, atomic force microscopy showed that the thin films were smooth and homogenous. The optical properties were obtained by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and the transmittance and absorbance spectra before and after gamma ray irradiation were compared for all samples, whereby the absorption and extinction coefficients and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric were studied before and after irradiation. It was found that the energy band gap values decreased from 3.94 eV to 3.72 eV with increasing Mg doping from 0% to 8% before irradiation, and from 3.92 eV to 3.59 eV after irradiation. All optical constants increased with doping percentage before and after irradiation. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed that all structures contained Sn and O elements in the undoped state, and contained SnO2 and Mg in the doped state.


SnO2 thin films structural properties doping gamma ray chemical spray pyrolysis energy-dispersive x-ray technology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank Sara Maccagnano-Zacher, Ph.D., from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    E. Elangovan and K. Ramamurthi, Optoelectron. J. Adv. Mater 5, 45 (2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.Z. Chen, S.W. Zhu, W.Q. Zhang, Y. Li, and C.B. Cai, Results Phys. 7, 2588 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.K. Maity and S.L. Sharma, Indian J. Pure Appl. Phy. 49, 606 (2011).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.H. Bari and S.B. Patil, Int. Lett. Chem. Phys. Astro. 17, 125 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Thanachayanont, V. Yordsri, and C. Boothroyd, Mater. Lett. 65, 2610 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Alyamani and N. Mustapha, Thin. Sol. Film. 611, 27 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.A. Azooz and M.A. Al-Jubbori, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 316, 171 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), International Centre for Diffraction Data, Card No. 14-1445, (1997).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T.M. Al-Saadi, Z.T. Khodair, N.A. Hameed, and T.A. Al-Dhahir, J. Eng. Tech. 33, 2400 (2015).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Thomas and B. Skariah, J. Alloys. Compd. 625, 231 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y.T. Prabhu, K.V. Rao, V.S. Kumar, and B.S. Kumari, World. J. NanoSci. Eng. 4, 21 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.A.A. Darwisha, Sh.A.M. Issab, and M.M. El-Nahass, Synth. Meta. 215, 200 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.H. Antar, Int. J. Appl. Innov. Eng. Mana. 3, 89 (2014).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Z.T. Khodair, A.A. Kamil, and Y.K. Abdalaah, Phys. B 503, 55 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Rouchdi, E. Salmani, B. Fares, N. Hassanain, and A. Mzerd, Results. Phys. 7, 620 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.M. Mutter, H.K. Atty, and A.A. Hateef, Int. Lett. Chem. Phys. Astro 63, 22 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Ahmad, K. Asokan, and M. Zulfequar, Int. J. Thin. Film. Sci. Tech. 4, 103 (2015).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    N.A. Bakr, Z.T. Khodair, S.M. Abdul Hassan, M. Mostajaboddavati, and A. Quaranta, Res. J. Chem. Sci. 5, 51 (2014).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Farzaneh, M.R. Abdi, K.R.E. Saraee, M. Mostajaboddavati, and A. Quaranta, Opt. Mater. 55, 22 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H.E. Ali, A. Atta, and M.M. Senna, Arab. J. Nucl. Sci. Appl. 48, 44 (2015).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.A. Bakr, A. Funde, V. Waman, and M. Kamble, Pram. J. Phys 76, 519 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.A. Salman, Z.T. Khodair, and R.K. Ismail, Int. J. Curr. Res. 6, 9669 (2014).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, College of ScienceUniversity of DiyalaBaqubahIraq
  2. 2.Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure ScienceUniversity of MosulMosulIraq
  3. 3.Department of Physics, College of ScienceUniversity of KerbalaKarbalaIraq

Personalised recommendations