Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 401–408 | Cite as

Photocatalytic Performance of SnO2:Mo Nanopowders Against the Degradation of Methyl Orange and Rhodamine B Dyes Under Visible Light Irradiation

  • N. Manjula
  • G. Selvan
  • A. R. BaluEmail author


Visible light-mediated photocatalytic performance of the Mo-doped SnO2 (SnO2:Mo) nanopowders synthesized via cost-effective chemical method against methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes has been outlined in this paper. Mo concentration in SnO2 is varied as 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% and 15 wt.%. The nanopowders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The (1 0 1) preferential growth observed for the undoped SnO2 is retained for all the doped samples. Uniform distribution of grains was observed from the SEM images of all the samples with grain size being reduced with Mo doping. XPS spectrum of the 10 wt.% Mo-doped sample confirmed that Sn and Mo exist in +4 and +6 oxidation states, respectively. The band gap of pure SnO2 decreased from 3.56 eV to 3.44 eV with Mo doping. Photocatalytic performance of pure SnO2 got enhanced with Mo doping and the 10 wt.% Mo-doped SnO2 sample exhibited maximum degradation efficiency of 90.23% against MO and 81.14% against RhB dyes. The results confirm that the SnO2:Mo nanopowders are well suited as an efficient catalyst for degrading organic dyes in waste water.


Visible light photocatalysts doping x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors thank the Director of IIT Kanpur for the XPS analysis.


  1. 1.
    S.K. Kansal, M. Singh, and D. Sud, J. Hazard. Mater. 141, 581 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Ladakowiez, M. Solecka, and R. Zylla, J. Biotechnol. 89, 175 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Das, P.V. Kamat, S. Padmaja, V. Au, and S.A. Madison, J. Chem. Soc. Perkins Trans. 2, 1219 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Melghit, A.K. Mohammed, and I. Al-Amri, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 117, 302 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Saravanakumar and V. Muthuraj, Optik 131, 754 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Manjula, G. Selvan, and A.R. Balu, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 29, 3657 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.D. Yang, Z.F. Yan, and T.C. Xiao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 8704 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Yin, M.W. Shao, and Z.S. Zhang, Mater. Res. Bull. 47, 3704 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Mazloom, F.E. Ghodsi, and H. Golmojdeh, J. Alloys Compd. 639, 393 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Nouri and A. Fakhri, Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 138, 563 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Melghit and K. Bouziane, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128, 58 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.K. Kim, S.H. Hug, J.W. Park, J.W. Jeon, and G.H. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett. 354, 165 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Suganya, A.R. Balu, S. Anitha, D. Prabha, S. Balamurugan, B. Priyanka, J. Srivind, and V.S. Nagarethinam, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 229, 118 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Mekki and N. Tabet, Acta Phys. Pol. A 125, 365 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. Zhi-Hua, T. Dong-Sheng, and H. Kuo, Chin. Phys. B 19, 026102 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Gomathi Devi and B. Narashima Murthy, Catal. Lett. 125, 320 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Fu, N. Sun, L. Feng, S. Wen, Y. An, and J. Liu, J. Alloys Compd. 698, 863 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Li, W. Zhang, L.X. Guan, F. Li, and M.M. Yao, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 40, 310 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. Abdul Rahman, M.T.M. Ayob, and S. Radiman, J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 212694 (2014).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.J. Reddy, M. Kokila, H. Nagabhushana, R. Chakradhar, C. Shivakumara, J. Rao, and B. Nagabhushana, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 5349 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Srivind, V.S. Nagarethinam, S. Balamurugan, S. Anitha, M. Suganya, D. Prabha, and A.R. Balu, Surf. Interfaces 9, 58 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Balamurugan, A.R. Balu, K. Usharani, M. Suganya, S. Anitha, D. Prabha, and S. Ilangovan, Pac. Sci. Rev. A. 18, 228 (2016).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.A. Subhan, T. Ahmed, N. Uddin, M.A.K. Azad, and K. Begum, Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 136, 824 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. Fang, J. Kennedy, J. Futter, and J. Manning, J. Mater. Res. 28, 521 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.C. Song and Y. Kang, Mater. Lett. 42, 283 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Suganya, A.R. Balu, D. Prabha, S. Anitha, S. Balamurugan, and J. Srivind, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28, 12348 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.H. Zhang, Q.P. Wang, and Z.Y. Xue, Appl. Surf. Sci. 207, 20 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Antosoly, S. Ilangovan, V.S. Nagarethinam, and A.R. Balu, Surf. Eng. 34, 682 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    F. Gu, S.F. Wang, M.K. Lu, G.J. Zhou, D. Xu, and D.R. Yuan, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8119 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Karmakar, S.K. Neogi, A. Banerjee, and S. Bandyopadhyay, Appl. Surf. Sci. 263, 671 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Rana, J. Rawat, M.M. Sorensson, and R.D.K. Misra, Acta Biomater. 2, 421 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Li, J.F. Huary, L.Y. Cao, J.Y. Li, H.B. Ouyang, and C.Y. Yao, Ceram. Int. 40, 2647 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Suganya, S. Anitha, D. Prabha, S. Balamurugan, J. Srivind, and A.R. Balu, Mater. Tech. 33, 214 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H.R. Rajabi, O. Khani, M. Shamsipur, and V. Vatanpour, J. Hazard. Mater. 250–251, 370 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.A. Rauf and S. Salman Ashraf, Chem. Eng. J. 151, 10 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. Bharathi, A.K. Sankar, N. Singh, D. Dash, and C. Rath, Mater. Res. Exp. 4, 085503 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PG and Research Department of PhysicsBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.PG and Research Department of PhysicsThanthai Hans Roever CollegePerambalurIndia
  3. 3.PG and Research Department of PhysicsAVVM Sri Puhpam CollegePoondi, ThanjavurIndia

Personalised recommendations