Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 1757–1761 | Cite as

Interface-Dependent Effective Mobility in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

  • Patrik Ahlberg
  • Malkolm Hinnemo
  • Shi-Li Zhang
  • Jörgen Olsson
Open Access


By pretreating the substrate of a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET), a stable unipolar transfer characteristic, instead of the typical V-shape ambipolar behavior, has been demonstrated. This behavior is achieved through functionalization of the SiO2/Si substrate that changes the SiO2 surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, in combination with postdeposition of an Al2O3 film by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Consequently, the back-gated G-FET is found to have increased apparent hole mobility and suppressed apparent electron mobility. Furthermore, with addition of a top-gate electrode, the G-FET is in a double-gate configuration with independent top- or back-gate control. The observed difference in mobility is shown to also be dependent on the top-gate bias, with more pronounced effect at higher electric field. Thus, the combination of top and bottom gates allows control of the G-FET’s electron and hole mobilities, i.e., of the transfer behavior. Based on these observations, it is proposed that polar ligands are introduced during the ALD step and, depending on their polarization, result in an apparent increase of the effective hole mobility and an apparent suppressed effective electron mobility.


Double-gate FETs graphene surface engineering ALD 



This work was partially financially supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (No. 2011.0082) and the Swedish Research Council (2014-5591).


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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Uppsala Universitet Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakultetenUppsalaSweden

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