Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 46, Issue 10, pp 5855–5865 | Cite as

Lead-Free Sn-Ce-O Composite Coating on Cu Produced by Pulse Electrodeposition from an Aqueous Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

  • Ashutosh Sharma
  • Karabi DasEmail author
  • Siddhartha Das


Pulse-electrodeposited Sn-Ce-O composite solder coatings were synthesized on a Cu substrate from an aqueous acidic solution containing stannous sulfate (SnSO4·3H2O), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and Triton X-100 as an additive. The codeposition was achieved by adding nano-cerium oxide powder in varying concentrations from 5 g/L to 20 g/L into the electrolytic bath. Microstructural characterization was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the deposits consist mainly of tetragonal β (Sn) with reduced cerium oxide species. The composite coatings thus obtained exhibit a smaller grain size, possess higher microhardness, and a lower melting point than the monolithic Sn coating. The electrical resistivity of the developed composites increases, however, but lies within the permissible limits for current lead-free solder applications. Also, an optimum balance of properties in terms of microhardness, adhesion, melting point and resistivity can be obtained with 0.9 wt.% cerium oxide in the Sn matrix, which enables potential applications in solder joints and packaging.


Nano pulse electrodeposition solder joints lead-free microhardness 


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of SeoulSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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