Titanium Oxide Adhesion Layer for High Temperature Annealed Si/Si3N4/TiOx/Pt/LiCoO2 Battery Structures
This work describes the influence of a high annealing temperature of about 700°C on the Si(substrate)/Si3N4/TiOx/Pt/LiCoO2 multilayer system for the fabrication of all-solid-state lithium ion thin film microbatteries. Such micro-batteries typically utilize lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) as cathode material with a platinum (Pt) current collector. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is used to act as a barrier against Li diffusion into the substrate. For a good adherence between Si3N4 and Pt, commonly titanium (Ti) is used as intermediate layer. However, to achieve crystalline LiCoO2 the multilayer system has to be annealed at high temperature. This post-treatment initiates Ti diffusion into the Pt-collector and an oxidation to TiOx, leading to volume expansion and adhesion failures. To solve this adhesion problem, we introduce titanium oxide (TiOx) as an adhesion layer, avoiding the diffusion during the annealing process. LiCoO2, Pt and Si3N4 layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and the TiOx layer by thermal oxidation of Ti layers deposited by e-beam technique. As-deposited and annealed multilayer systems using various TiOx layer thicknesses were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that an annealing process at temperature of 700°C leads to different interactions of Ti atoms between the layers, for various TiOx layer thicknesses (25–45 nm).
KeywordsLi-microbatteries platinum titanium oxide adhesion layer high temperature ToF-SIMS
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