Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 4199–4213 | Cite as

Elemental Compositions of Over 80 Cell Phones

  • Beverley Christian
  • Alexandre Romanov
  • Irina Romanova
  • Laura J. Turbini
Article

Abstract

Over the last few years, 85 cell phones have been disassembled, ground up, dissolved, and analyzed for elemental content, mainly for information about the metals present in the phones, but also for some metalloids and nonmetals. The following list of 38 elements were detected in some or all of the phones: Be, B, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Y, Nb, Pd, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er. Cadmium was never detected. This paper discusses the methods used for carrying out the analysis, proposes possible sources in the telephones for the elements of interest, the reasons for the interest in most of the elements, and method repeatability.

Keywords

Elemental composition elements composition cell phones ICP 

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Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank John Miles, Senior Director, Material Quality for his support. We would also like to thank Nancy Wang, who helped carry out some of the later analytical work. Finally, we would like to thank Denny Fritz of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for providing several of the cell phones tested.

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beverley Christian
    • 1
  • Alexandre Romanov
    • 1
  • Irina Romanova
    • 2
  • Laura J. Turbini
    • 3
  1. 1.BlackberryCambridgeCanada
  2. 2.NutriAg Ltd.TorontoCanada
  3. 3.WalthamUSA

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