Effect of the Addition of B2O3 on the Density, Microstructure, Dielectric, Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Ceramics
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Boron oxide (B2O3) addition to pre-reacted K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) powders facilitated swift densification at relatively low sintering temperatures which was believed to be a key to minimize potassium and sodium loss. The base KNN powder was synthesized via solid-state reaction route. The different amounts (0.1–1 wt%) of B2O3 were-added, and ceramics were sintered at different temperatures and durations to optimize the amount of B2O3 needed to obtain KNN pellets with highest possible density and grain size. The 0.1 wt% B2O3-added KNN ceramics sintered at 1,100 °C for 1 h exhibited higher density (97 %). Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed an increase in average grain size with increasing B2O3 content at appropriate temperature of sintering and duration. The B2O3-added KNN ceramics exhibited improved dielectric and piezoelectric properties at room temperature. For instance, 0.1 wt% B2O3-added KNN ceramic exhibited d 33 value of 116 pC/N which is much higher than that of pure KNN ceramics. Interestingly, all the B2O3-added (0.1–1 wt%) KNN ceramics exhibited polarization–electric field (P vs. E) hysteresis loops at room temperature. The remnant polarization (P r) and coercive field (E c) values are dependent on the B2O3 content and crystallite size.
Key wordsBoron oxide density grain size piezoelectric properties crystallite size K0.5Na0.5NbO3
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