Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 42, Issue 8, pp 2648–2657 | Cite as

Effect of Thickness and Phosphorus Content on Au/Pd/Ni(P) Metal Finish of Printed Circuit Board

  • Chih-Kai Huang
  • Keh-Wen Lin
  • Yu-Ming Huang
  • Alvin R. Caparanga
  • Rhoda B. Leron
  • Meng-Hui Li


Electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold [Au/Pd/Ni(P) or ENEPIG] pads consisting of layers of Ni(P) (200 μin), pure palladium (Pd) or palladium phosphorus (PdP) (2 μin, 4 μin or 6 μin), and gold (Au) (2 μin or 4 μin) were prepared using two different processes (wire bonding and lead-free soldering). Each of these processes was done with zero- or two-time reflow. Different tests on solderability, wettability, wire-bonding capacity, and corrosion resistance were performed on different combinations of ENEPIG pads formed using different combinations of processes and conditions. Scanning electron microscopy was also performed to examine the surface characteristics of the pads. It was found that the ENEPIG pad sample with the 4-μin-thick Au and 4-μin-thick PdP layers possessed stable wire-bonding capacity and excellent lead-free solder reliability. In addition, the ENEPIG–PdP systems showed better corrosion resistance, which is attributed to the presence of the amorphous PdP layer protecting the nickel layer.


ENEPIG PCB corrosion wire bonding lead-free soldering 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Y. Oda, M. Kiso, S. Kurosaka, A. Okada, K. Kitajima, S. Hashimoto, and D. Gudeczauskas (Proceedings of the 41st International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), Rhode Island, U.S.A., 2008).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Zeng, R. Stierman, D. Abbott, and M. Murtuza, JOM 58, 75 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.S. Won, S.S. Park, J. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and S.-J. Lee, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 56 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    X. Huang, S.W.R. Lee, L. Ming, and W.T. Chen, IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 31, 185 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Ratchev, S. Stoukatch, and B. Swinnen, Microelectron. Reliab. 46, 1315 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Milad and M. Orduz, Metal Finish. 105, 25 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Kim, J.-Y. Park, and Y.-H. Kim, J. Electron. Mater. 41, 763 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.H. Wu, C.S. Lin, S.H. Huang, and C.E. Ho, J. Electron. Mater. 39, 2387 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.J.G. Strandjord, S. Popelar, and C. Jauernig, Microelectron. Reliab. 42, 265 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.W. Yoon, B.I. Noh, and S.B. Jung, J. Electron. Mater. 40, 1950 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Faure and J. Bath, Lead-Free Soldering (New York: Springer, 2007).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Oezkoek, H. Roberts, and J. McGurran (Proceedings of the 43rd International Symposium on Microelectronics (IMAPS), North Carolina, U.S.A., 2010).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.E. Ho, W.H. Wu, C.C. Wang, and Y.C. Lin, J. Electron. Mater. 41, 3266 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Zeng, R. Stierman, D. Abbott, and M. Murtuza (Proceedings of Tenth Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronics Systems (ITHERM), San Diego, CA, IEEE, New York, U.S.A., 2006), p. 1111.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Biunno and M. Barbetta (Proceedings of Surface Mounting Technology International, San Jose, California, SMTA, Edina, MN, 1999), p. 561.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Kai Huang
    • 1
  • Keh-Wen Lin
    • 2
  • Yu-Ming Huang
    • 2
  • Alvin R. Caparanga
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rhoda B. Leron
    • 1
  • Meng-Hui Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering and R&D Center for Membrane TechnologyChung Yuan Christian UniversityChung Li CityTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.OMG (Asia) Electronics Company LimitedChung Li CityTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.School of Chemical Engineering and ChemistryMapúa Institute of TechnologyManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations