Four-Wire Resistance Measurements of a Bismuth Nanowire Encased in a Quartz Template Utilizing Focused Ion Beam Processing
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Four-wire resistance measurements were performed using a bismuth nanowire, 750 nm in diameter, 1.96 mm in length, and encapsulated in a quartz template. One side of the quartz template was polished to allow focused ion beam (FIB) processing, and metal film layers were deposited on the polished side to form electrodes. Nanofabrication was employed to remove a selected portion of the quartz, and FIB processing was used to expose the surface of the bismuth nanowire. A local area of the bismuth wire was successfully exposed, and a carbon electrode was deposited on the bismuth wire in situ by a chemical reaction between the ion beam and phenanthrene gas. Additional carbon deposition on the initial carbon electrode was used to connect to a metal film on the quartz template. In total, four nanofabrications were performed on the bismuth wire to create the desired electrical contacts. The resistivity of the nanowire was measured by a four-wire method to be 1.29 μΩ m at 300 K, corresponding to that of bulk bismuth. The temperature dependence of the resistivity was also measured, and was qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with previous calculated and experimental results using other bismuth nanowires. The present results demonstrate the successful development of a technique to fabricate an electrode on a local area of a nanowire using FIB processing to form suitable electrical contacts.
KeywordsBi nanowire four-wire method focused ion beam
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