Grain Size and Texture of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Synthesized by Cosputtering Binary Sulfides and Annealing: Effects of Processing Conditions and Sodium
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- HLAING Oo, W., Johnson, J., Bhatia, A. et al. Journal of Elec Materi (2011) 40: 2214. doi:10.1007/s11664-011-1729-3
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We investigate the synthesis of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) polycrystalline thin films using cosputtering from binary sulfide targets followed by annealing in sulfur vapor at 500°C to 650°C. The films are the kesterite CZTS phase as indicated by x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and optical absorption measurements. The films exhibit (112) fiber texture and preferred low-angle and Σ3 grain boundary populations which have been demonstrated to reduce recombination in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe films. The grain growth kinetics are investigated as functions of temperature and the addition of Na. Significantly, lateral grain sizes above 1 μm are demonstrated for samples grown on Na-free glass, demonstrating the feasibility for CZTS growth on substrates other than soda lime glass.