Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 967–973

Dislocation Reduction of HgCdTe/Si Through Ex Situ Annealing

  • G. Brill
  • S. Farrell
  • Y. P. Chen
  • P. S. Wijewarnasuriya
  • Mulpuri V. Rao
  • J. D. Benson
  • N. Dhar


Current growth methods of HgCdTe/Cd(Se)Te/Si by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) result in a dislocation density of mid 106 cm−2 to low 107 cm−2. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is well accepted that this high level of dislocation density leads to poorer long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal-plane array (FPA) performance, especially in terms of operability. We have conducted a detailed study of ex situ cycle annealing of HgCdTe/Cd(Se)Te/Si material in order to reduce the total number of dislocations present in as-grown material. We have successfully and consistently shown a reduction of one half to one full order of magnitude in the number of dislocations as counted by etch pit density (EPD) methods. Additionally, we have observed a corresponding decrease in x-ray full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ex situ annealed HgCdTe/Si layers. Among all parameters studied, the total number of annealing cycles seems to have the greatest impact on dislocation reduction. Currently, we have obtained numerous HgCdTe/Si layers which have EPD values measuring ~1 × 106 cm−2 after completion of thermal cycle annealing. Preliminary Hall measurements indicate that electrical characteristics of the material can be maintained.


Mercury cadmium telluride HgCdTe thermal cycle annealing (112) etch pit density (EPD) dislocations MBE silicon Si composite substrates 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E.P.G. Smith, G. Venzor, Y. Petraitis, M. Liguori, A. Levy, C. Rabkin, J. Peterson, M. Reddy, S. Johnson, and J. Bangs, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1045 (2007).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Dhar and M. Tidrow, Proc. SPIE 5564, 34 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Love, K. Ando, R. Bornfreund, E. Corrales, R. Mills, J. Cripe, N. Lum, J. Rosbeck, and M. Smith, Proc. SPIE 4486, 373 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, M. Zandian, D. Edwall, W. McLevige, C. Chen, J. Pasko, G. Hildebrandt, A. Chen, J. Arias, A. D’Souza, S. Rujirawat, and S. Sivananthan, J. Electron. Mater. 27, 546 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Bajaj, Proc. SPIE 3948, 42 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.B. Varesi, A.A. Buell, J.M. Pererson, R.E. Bornfreund, M.F. Vilela, W.A. Radford, and S.M. Joshnson, J. Electron. Mater. 32, 661 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Gulbransen, S. Black, A. Childs, C. Fletcher, S. Johnson, W. Radford, G. Venzor, J. Sienicki, A. Thompson, J. Griffith, A. Buell, M. Vilela, and M. Newton, Proc. SPIE 5406, 305 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Brill, S. Velicu, P. Boieriu, Y. Chen, N. Dhar, T. Lee, Y. Selamet, and S. Sivananthan, J. Electron. Mater. 30, 717 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Carmody, J. Pasko, D. Edwall, E. Piqutte, M. Kangas, S. Greeman, J. Arias, R. Jacobs, W. Mason, A. Stoltz, Y. Chen, and N. Dhar, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 1184 (2008).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Jowikowski and A. Rogalski, J. Electron. Mater. 29, 736 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Carmody, D. Edwall, J. Ellsworth, J. Arias, M. Grownert, R. Jacobs, L.A. Alemida, J.H. Dinan, Y. Chen, G. Brill, and N.K. Dhar, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1098 (2007).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.M. Johnson, D.R. Rhiger, J.P. Rosbeck, J.M. Peterson, S.M. Taylor, and M.E. Boyd, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1499 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Parados, E. Fitzgerald, A. Caster, S. Tobin, J. Marciniec, J. Welsch, A. Hairston, P. Lamarre, J. Riendeau, B. Woodward, S. Hu, M. Reine, and P. Lovecchio, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1068 (2007).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, Y. Chen, G. Brill, M. Carmody, R. Bailey, J. Arias, and N.K. Dhar, Proc. SPIE, 6206, 620611 (2006).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Chen, S. Farrell, G. Brill, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and N. Dhar, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5303 (2008).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. He, S.L. Wang, J.R. Yang, M.F. Yu, Y. Wu, X.Q. Chen, W.Z. Fang, Y.M. Qiao, Y. Gui, and J. Chu, J. Cryst. Growth 201/202, 524 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.H. Shin, J.M. Arias, M. Zandian, J.G. Pasko, and R.R. DeWames, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 21 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.H. Shin, J.M. Arias, D.D. Edwall, M. Zandian, J.G. Pasko, and R.R. DeWames, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1492 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Sasaki and N. Oda, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3121 (1995).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Chen, G. Brill, and N. Dhar, J. Cryst. Growth 252, 270 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Farrell, G. Brill, Y. Chen, P. Wijewarnasuriya, M.V. Rao, N. Dhar, and K. Harris, J. Electron. Mater. 39(1), 43 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.D. Benson, P.J. Smith, R.N. Jacobs, J.K. Markunas, M. Jaime-Vasquez, L.A. Almeida, A. Stoltz, L.O. Bubulac, M. Groenert, P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, G. Brill, Y. Chen, and U. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 38, 1771 (2009).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.D. Benson, R.N. Jacobs, J.K. Markunas, M. Jaime- Vaswuez, P.J. Smith, L.A. Almeida, M. Martinka, M.F. Vilela, and U. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 1231 (2008).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© U.S. Army Research Laboratory  2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Brill
    • 1
  • S. Farrell
    • 2
  • Y. P. Chen
    • 1
  • P. S. Wijewarnasuriya
    • 1
  • Mulpuri V. Rao
    • 2
  • J. D. Benson
    • 3
  • N. Dhar
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Sensors and Electronic Devices DirectorateAdelphiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Army RDECOM, CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors DirectorateFt. BelvoirUSA
  4. 4.DARPA, MTO OfficeArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations