Growth of Intermetallic Compounds in Thermosonic Copper Wire Bonding on Aluminum Metallization
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Interface evolution caused by thermal aging under different temperatures and durations was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that approximately 30-nm-thick and discontinuous Cu-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were present in the initial bonds before aging. Cu-Al IMCs grew under thermal aging with increasing aging time. The growth kinetics of the Cu-Al IMCs was correlated to the diffusion process during aging; their combined activation energy was estimated to be 1.01 eV. Initially, Al-rich Cu-Al IMCs formed in the as-bonded state and early stage of aging treatment. Cu9Al4 was identified by selected-area electron diffraction (SAD) as the only type of Cu-Al IMC present after thermal aging at 250°C for 100 h; this is attributed to the relatively short supply of aluminum to the interfacial reaction.
KeywordsCopper wire bonding interfacial analysis intermetallic compounds growth kinetics bonding mechanism
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This paper is an output of the PMI2 Project funded by the UK Department for Innovation, Universities, and Skills (DIUS) for the benefit of the Singapore Higher Education Sector and the UK Higher Education Sector. Authors would also like to acknowledge Dr. Geoff West, Mr. John Bates, and Mr. Honghui Wang for their assistance with experiments.
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