Finite Element Modeling of Stress Evolution in Sn Films due to Growth of the Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound
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We use finite element simulations to quantitatively evaluate different mechanisms for the generation of stress in Sn films due to growth of the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phase at the Cu-Sn interface. We find that elastic and plastic behavior alone are not sufficient to reproduce the experimentally measured stress evolution. However, when grain boundary diffusion is included, the model results agree well with experimental observations. Examination of conditions necessary to produce the observed stresses provides insight into potential strategies for minimizing stress generation and thus mitigating Sn whisker growth.