Electromigration in Line-Type Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu Solder Joints
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In this study, the different electromigration (EM) behaviors of eutectic Sn-Bi solder in the solid and molten states were clarified using line-type Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu solder joints. When the eutectic Sn-Bi solder was in the solid state during the EM test, a Bi-rich layer formed at the anode side while a Sn-rich band formed at the cathode side, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) at the cathode side was thicker than that at the anode side. The growth of the Bi-rich layer exhibited a linear dependence on the time of stressing. While the actual temperature of the solder joint increased to 140°C and the solder was in a molten state or partially molten state, two separate Bi-rich layers formed at the anode side and a great many Cu6Sn5 IMC precipitates formed between the two Bi-rich layers. Also, the IMC layer at the cathode side was thinner than that at the anode side. With a current-crowding-reduced structure, the products of diffusivity and effective charge number of Bi in the eutectic Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu solder joints stressed with current density of 5 × 103 A/cm2 at 35°C, 55°C, and 75°C were calculated.
KeywordsElectromigration line-type Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu solder joints microstructure
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This project has been supported by CityU SRG Project (Project No. 7002083).
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