Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 1303–1310 | Cite as

Latest Developments of HgCdTe e-APDs at CEA LETI-Minatec

  • Johan Rothman
  • Gwladys Perrais
  • Philippe Ballet
  • L. Mollard
  • S. Gout
  • J.-P. Chamonal
Article

Abstract

In this communication, we report on the electro-optical characterization of planar back-side-illuminated HgCdTe electron initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) test arrays with cut-off wavelengths λ c = 2.4 μm, λ c = 4.8 μm, and λ c = 9.2 μm. The e-APDs were manufactured at LETI using absorption layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We present measurements of the distributions in gain, noise, and equivalent input dark current. The mid-wave (MW) diodes yielded a very low dispersion (2%) and high operability (98%) for gains up to M = 200. The excess noise factor and equivalent input current (I eq_in) operability were slightly lower, due to defects in the depletion region. The lowest measured value of I eq_in = 1 fA corresponds to the lowest level measured so far in HgCdTe e-APDs and opens the way to new applications. The gain in the long-wave (LW) diodes was limited by tunnelling currents to a value of M = 2.4, associated with an average noise factor F = 1.2. A gain of M = 20 at a bias of −22.5 V was demonstrated in the short-wave (SW) e-APDs.

Keywords

HgCdTe APD MBE SW MW LW gain dispersion sensitivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the DGA and J.-C. Peyrard for supporting this study.

References

  1. 1.
    J.D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, M.A. Kinch, J.E. Robinson, Proc. SPIE. 4454, 188 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, M.A. Kinch, J.E. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scrithfield, F. Ma, J. Campbell, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 1166 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, M.A. Kinch, J.E. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, J. Campbell, Proc. SPIE. 5564, 44 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.A. Kinch, J.D. Beck, C.-F. Wan, F. Ma, J. Campbell, J. Electron. Mater. 33, 630 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Vaidyanathan et al., 2004 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proc. 3, 1776 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.S. Hall et al., Proc. SPIE. 5783, 412 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Perrais, J. Rothman, G. Destefanis, J. Baylet, P. Castelein, J.-P. Chamonal etP. Tribolet, Proc. SPIE. 6935, 69350H (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.B. Reine, J.W. Marciniec, K.K. Wong, T. Parodos, J.D. Mullarkey, P.A. Lamarre, S.P. Tobin, K.A. Gustavsen, Proc. SPIE. 6294, 629401 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.B. Reine, J.W. Marciniec, K.K. Wong, T. Parodos, J.D. Mullarkey, P.A. Lamarre, S.P. Tobin, K.A. Gustavsen, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1059 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Perrais, J. Baylet, G. Destefanis, J. Rothman, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 963 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Beck, M. Woodall, R. Scritchfield, M. Ohlson, L. Wood, P. Mitra, and J. Robinson, to be published in J. Electron. Mater. 37 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11664-008-0420-9
  12. 12.
    M.B. Reine, J.W. Marciniec, K.K. Wong, T. Parodos, J.D. Mullarkey, P.A. Lamarre, S.P. Tobin, R.W. Minich, and K.A. Gustavsen, to be published in J. Electron. Mater. 37, (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Rothman, G. Perrais, G. Destefanis, J. Baylet, P. Castelein, J.-P. Chamonal. SPIE Proc. SPIE. 6542, 654219 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.A. Kinch, to be published in J. Electron. Mater. 37 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11664-008-0439-y

Copyright information

© TMS 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johan Rothman
    • 1
  • Gwladys Perrais
    • 1
  • Philippe Ballet
    • 1
  • L. Mollard
    • 1
  • S. Gout
    • 1
  • J.-P. Chamonal
    • 1
  1. 1.CEA/LETI/DOPTGrenoble Cedex 9France

Personalised recommendations