Cure shrinkage measurement of nonconductive adhesives by means of a thermomechanical analyzer
The conductivity of a nonconductive adhesive (NCA) flip chip interconnect is completely dependent on the direct mechanical contact between the integrated circuit (IC) bump and substrate pad. Cure shrinkage of NCA is critical for the formation of the final contact force in the contacts. However, measurement of the cure shrinkage during cross-linking reaction is fairly difficult. This paper introduces a new, yet simple, approach to measure cure shrinkage of adhesives using a thermo-mechanical analyzer. Isothermal studies of shrinkage change as a function of curing show four distinct regions. First, the thickness of the epoxy decreases due to decreasing viscosity and applied load, followed by a stage where the dimension change is constant as the cross-linking reaction is yet to set in. Once cross-linking begins, the shrinkage reaches a maximum followed by a plateau where the cross-linking reaction has completed. Sharp changes of the slope of cure shrinkage versus degree of cure were observed to coincide with gelation and vitrification. After gelation, a linear relationship between the cure shrinkage and degree of cure was observed to extend until the occurrence of vitrification, which quenches the cross-linking reaction. Applied load in the range of 0.05 N was found to be optimal to minimize measurement errors.
Key wordsNonconductive adhesives (NCAs) flip chip cure shrinkage cure stress gelation vitrification
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