Wetting and reaction of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi solder with Cu and Ni substrates
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The wettability of newly developed Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi lead-free solder on Cu and Ni substrates was assessed through the wetting balance tests. The wettability assessment parameters such as contact angle (ϑc) and maximum wetting force (Fw) were documented for three solder bath temperatures with three commercial fluxes, namely, no-clean (NC), nonactivated (R), and water-soluble organic acid flux (WS). It was found that the lead-free Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi solder exhibited less wetting force, i.e., poorer wettability, than the conventional Sn-37Pb solder for all flux types and solder bath temperatures. The wettability of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi lead-free solder on Cu substrate was much higher than that on Ni substrate. Nonwetting for Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi and Sn-Pb solders on Ni substrate occurred when R-type flux was used. A model was built and simulations were performed for the wetting balance test. The simulation results were found very close to the experimental results. It was also observed that larger values of immersion depth resulted in a decrease of the wetting force and corresponding meniscus height, whereas the increase in substrate perimeter enhanced the wettability. The wetting reactions between the solder and Cu/Ni substrates were also investigated, and it was found that Cu atoms diffused into the solder through the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) much faster than did the Ni atoms. Rapid formation of IMCs inhibited the wettability of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi solder compared to the Sn-Pb solder.
Key wordsWettability Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi wetting force contact angle flux surface tension finite element modeling intermetallic compounds
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