Density measurement of Sn-40Pb, Sn-57Bi, and Sn-9Zn by indirect Archimedean method
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By the indirect Archimedean method, the density and the density-temperature relationship of the Sn-40Pb eutectic alloy and two Pb-free solders, Sn-57Bi and Sn-9Zn eutectic alloys, were measured from room temperature to about 250°C. The results showed that the density-temperature dependence for each alloy in both solid and melting states can be fitted linearly as ρS(Sn-40Pb)=8.51−8.94×10−4(T−25°C), ρL(Sn-40Pb)=8.15−13.8×10−4(T−Tm); ρS(Sn-57Bi)=8.54−5.86 × 10−4(T−25°C), ρL(Sn-57Bi)=8.51−10.9×10−4(T−Tm); and ρs(Sn-9Zn)=7.22−7.78×10−4(T−25°C), ρL(Sn-9Zn)=6.89−5.88×10 −4(T−Tm), where the density unit was g/cm3. At the melting point, density of the melt of these solders is 8.15 g/cm3, 8.51 g/cm3, and 6.89 g/cm3, respectively. The density decreased 2.6% for Sn-40Pb eutectic alloy during melting, and 2.7% for Sn-9Zn eutectic alloy, but increased 0.5% for Sn-57Bi eutectic alloy. The excess molar volume for these alloys after mixing at their melting point is 0.03 cm3/mol for Sn-40Pb, 0.09 cm3/mol for Sn-57Bi, and 0.21 cm3/mol for Sn-9Zn.
Key wordsLead (Pb)-free solders density indirect Archimedean method liquid tin (Sn) alloys
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