Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 861–867 | Cite as

Thermodynamic properties of titanium and iron in molten silicon

  • Takahiro Miki
  • Kazuki Morita
  • Nobuo Sano


Titanium and iron in silicon are known as harmful “lifetime killer” impurities, which shorten the lifetime of excited carriers in silicon solar cell and disturb power generation. Therefore, the removal of titanium and iron is one of the most important topics for the production of solar grade silicon. Thermodynamic properties of titanium and iron in molten silicon were determined at 1723 K by equilibrating molten silicon-titanium alloys or molten silicon-iron alloys with molten lead, which has a limited mutual solubility for both alloys. The activity coefficients of infinite dilution, self-interaction coefficients of titanium and iron in molten silicon, and the Gibbs energy change of mixing for silicon-titanium and silicon-iron at 1723 K relative to pure liquid silicon, titanium, and iron were determined.


Silicon Solar Cell Lead Phase Gibbs Energy Change Molten Silicon Molten Lead 
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Copyright information

© ASM International & TMS-The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takahiro Miki
    • 1
  • Kazuki Morita
    • 1
  • Nobuo Sano
    • 1
  1. 1.the Department of MetallurgyThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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