Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 1–5 | Cite as

Phase Equilibrium Studies of Iron Silicate Slag Under Direct to Blister Copper-Making Condition

  • Yongqi Sun
  • Mao ChenEmail author
  • Zhixiang Cui
  • Leonel Contreras
  • Baojun Zhao


Direct to blister (DTB) accounts for a significant process for copper making due to its simplified process chain and the production of a single stable SO2-concentrated off-gas. In this study, the phase equilibria of iron silicate slags in the Cu-Fe-Si-S-O system at controlled atmosphere were, for the first time, experimentally investigated in the spinel primary phase field. The liquidus temperatures were quantified, including the equilibrium “Cu2O” content as well as the solid solutions in spinel.


The authors thank the National Copper Corporation of Chile (Codelco) and Dongying Fangyuan Nonferrous Metals for financial support. The authors acknowledge use of the facilities, and the scientific and technical assistance, of the Australian Microscopy & Microanalysis Research Facility, Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland.


  1. 1.
    P. Taskinen: Miner. Process. Extr. Metall., 2011, vol. 120, pp. 240–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.G. Davenport, M. King, M. Schlesinger, and A.S. Biswas: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. 4th ed., Elsevier, Pergamon, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Taskinen and I. Kojo: Proc. Molten 2009 Int. Conf., 2009, pp. 1139–51.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H.M. Henao, F. Kongoli, and K. Itagaki: Mater. Trans., 2005, vol. 46, pp. 812–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Nikolic, P.C. Hayes, and E. Jak: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2008, vol. 39B, pp. 179–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Nikolic, P.C. Hayes, and E. Jak: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2009, vol. 40B, pp. 910–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, A.E. Gheribi, K. Hack, I.H. Jung, Y.B. Kang, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton, S. Petersen, C. Robelin, J. Sangster, P. Spencer, and M.A. Van Ende: CALPHAD, 2016, vol. 54, pp. 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Chen, Y. Sun, E. Balladares, C. Pizarro, and B. Zhao: CALPHAD, 2019, vol. 66, p. 101642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Sun, M. Chen, and B. Zhao: J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2019, vol. 515, pp. 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Nikolic, P.C. Hayes, and E. Jak: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2009, vol. 40B, pp. 892–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Liu, Z. Cui, M. Chen, and B. Zhao: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2016, vol. 47B, pp. 164–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Nikolic, P.C. Hayes, and E. Jak: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2009, vol. 40B, pp. 900–09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongqi Sun
    • 1
  • Mao Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhixiang Cui
    • 2
  • Leonel Contreras
    • 3
  • Baojun Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Dongying Fangyuan Nonferrous MetalsDongyingP.R. China
  3. 3.National Copper Corporation of ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations