Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Visualization of TiO2 Reduction Behavior in Molten Salt Electrolysis

  • 129 Accesses


An in situ observation technique of the TiO2 interfacial behavior in molten LiCl-KCl electrolysis was developed. The variation of the thin TiO2 electrode surface were tracked through the high-speed digital microscopy synchronized with the electrochemical measurement. Two characteristic interfacial behaviors were discovered: physical breakage of the titanium oxide and Li(l) spreading on electrode surface. These electrochemically induced interfacial behaviors affect the current-time curves due to the heterogeneity of the titanium oxide film shape.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    G. Z. Chen, D. J. Fray and T. W. Farthing: Nature, 2000, vol. 407, pp. 361–64.

  2. 2.

    K. Ono, and R. O. Suzuki: JOM, 2002, vol. 54, pp. 59–61.

  3. 3.

    R. O. Suzuki, and S. Inoue, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2003, vol. 34, pp. 277–85.

  4. 4.

    R. O. Suzuki, H. Noguchi, H. Hada, S. Natsui, and T. Kikuchi: Mater. Trans., 2017, vol. 58, pp. 341–349.

  5. 5.

    H. Noguchi, S. Natsui, T. Kikuchi, and R. O. Suzuki: Electrochem., 2018, vol. 86, pp. 82–87.

  6. 6.

    J. M. Hur, S. C. Lee, S. M. Jeong, and C. S. Seo: Chem. Lett., 2007, vol.36, pp.1028-29.

  7. 7.

    M. W. Lee, E. Y. Choi, S. C. Jeon, J. Lee, S. B. Park, S. Paek, M. F. Simpson, S. M. Jeong: Electrochem. Commun., 2016, vol. 72, pp.23-26.

  8. 8.

    Y. Sakamura: J. Electrochem. Soc., 2010, vol. 157, pp. E135–E139.

  9. 9.

    Y. Katayama and B. Friedrich: Electrochem. Soc. Proc., 2004, vol. 2004, pp. 1046-51.

  10. 10.

    S. Natsui, T. Sudo, T. Kikuchi, and R. O. Suzuki: Electrochem. Commun., 2017, vol.81, pp. 43-47.

  11. 11.

    T. Takenaka, S. Akimura, and T. Morishige: Electrochem., 2018, vol. 86, pp. 179-83.

  12. 12.

    W. Xiao, X. Jin, Y. Deng, D. Wang, and G. Z. Chen: J. Electroanal. Chem., 2010, vol. 639(1-2), pp. 130-140.

  13. 13.

    W. Xiao, X. Jin, Y. Deng, D. Wang, X. Hu, and G. Z. Chen: ChemPhysChem, 2006, vol. 7(8), 1750-1758.

  14. 14.

    Y. Deng, D. Wang, W. Xiao, X. Jin, X. Hu, and G. Z. Chen: The J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, vol. 109(29), 14043-14051.

  15. 15.

    S. Natsui, T. Sudo, T. Kaneko, K. Tonya, D. Nakajima, T. Kikuchi, and R. O. Suzuki: Sci. Rep., 2018, vol. 8, pp. 13114.

  16. 16.

    Y. Sakamura, M. Kurata, and T. Inoue: J. Electrochem. Soc., 2006 vol. 153, pp. D31-D39.

  17. 17.

    H. Kuma, K. Ito, and M. Kawakami: Tetsu-to-Hagane, 1990, vol. 76, pp. 1656-63.

  18. 18.

    P. Lai, M. Hu, Z. Qu, L. Gao, C. Bai, T. Wang, S. Zhang, and G. Qiu, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2018, vol. 49, pp. 3403-3412.

  19. 19.

    K. S. Mohandas, and D. J. Fray: Trans. Indian Inst. Met., 2004, vol. 57, pp. 579-92.

  20. 20.

    R. C. DeVries, and R. Roy: Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 1954, vol. 33, pp. 370-72.

Download references

This work was made possible by the financial support from the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI Grant No. 18K14036), the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation (Grant No. 0291073-A), Tanikawa Fund Promotion of Thermal Technology, and Amano Institute of Technology.

Author information

Correspondence to Shungo Natsui.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Manuscript submitted May 12, 2019.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (AVI 71287 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 75494 kb)

Supplementary material 1 (AVI 71287 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 75494 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Natsui, S., Sudo, T., Shibuya, R. et al. Visualization of TiO2 Reduction Behavior in Molten Salt Electrolysis. Metall and Materi Trans B 51, 11–15 (2020).

Download citation