Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 2508–2516 | Cite as

Carbon Bonding State Has a Small Effect on Melting of Direct-Reduced Iron

  • Geonu Kim
  • Yilmaz Kacar
  • Petrus Christiaan PistoriusEmail author


The concentration and chemical bonding state of carbon in direct-reduced iron (DRI) might affect DRI melting temperature and rate. The effects of carbon bonding state and concentration were evaluated with high-temperature confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and by monitoring the carbon monoxide generation rate from reaction between DRI pellets and a laboratory slag-steel melt. In industrial steelmaking, DRI melting is likely controlled by heat transfer; the concentration and bonding state of carbon play secondary roles.


The authors are grateful for financial and technical support by the members of the Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research. The authors would like to acknowledge use of the Materials Characterization Facility at Carnegie Mellon University under Grant # MCF-677785


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research (CISR)Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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