Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 229–241 | Cite as

Distributions of Ag, Bi, and Sb as Minor Elements between Iron-Silicate Slag and Copper in Equilibrium with Tridymite in the Cu-Fe-O-Si System at T = 1250 °C and 1300 °C (1523 K and 1573 K)

  • Taufiq HidayatEmail author
  • Jiang Chen
  • Peter C. Hayes
  • Evgueni Jak


New experimental data on the distributions of silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi), and antimony (Sb) between liquid iron-silicate slag and liquid copper metal in equilibrium with tridymite in the Cu-Fe-O-Si system at T = 1250 °C and 1300 °C (1523 K and 1573 K) have been obtained. The experimental methodology involved high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching of the equilibrated phases, followed by direct measurement of the equilibrium phases with electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) for measurement of major element concentrations and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICPMS) for the measurement of minor element concentrations. The 4-point test approach was employed to confirm the achievement of chemical equilibrium in the current study. Open-system equilibration on quartz substrates in controlled gas atmospheres (CO/CO2/Ar) and closed-system equilibration in sealed quartz ampoules were used. The new experimental data resolve significant discrepancies found in previous studies and can be used as input for the development of thermodynamic databases for copper-making processes.



The authors would like to thank the Australian Research Council Linkage program LP140100480, Altonorte Glencore, Atlantic Copper, Aurubis, BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Operation, Kazzinc Glencore, PASAR Glencore, Outotec Oy (Espoo), Anglo American Platinum, Umicore, Rio Tinto Kennecott, and Boliden for the financial and technical support for this research. The authors acknowledge the support of the AMMRF at the Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis at The University of Queensland. The authors also acknowledge the scientific and technical assistances of Dr Charlotte Allen at the Centre of Analytical Research Facilities at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Thanks are also owed to Mr Hong Wee Kor for his help in the preparation of this article.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taufiq Hidayat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jiang Chen
    • 2
  • Peter C. Hayes
    • 1
  • Evgueni Jak
    • 1
  1. 1.Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH), School of Chemical EngineeringThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Advanced Microscopy, The Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

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