Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 2599–2610 | Cite as

Simulation of Air Entrainment during Mold Filling: Comparison with Water Modeling Experiments

  • Seyyed Hojjat Majidi
  • John Griffin
  • Christoph Beckermann
Technical Publication


Oxide inclusions form during pouring of metal castings as a result of air entrainment. Recently, a model was developed by the authors to predict the volumetric air entrainment during pouring. It was found that the velocity, diameter, and turbulence intensity of the liquid stream affect the air entrainment rate during pouring. In this study, the developed air entrainment model is validated with water modeling experiments. In the water modeling studies, water was poured using a bottom pour ladle. The effects of nozzle opening, head height, nozzle diameter, and nozzle extension are simulated. The predictions compare favorably with the experimental measurements. Results indicate that low head height and short pouring time have a beneficial effect on reducing the air entrainment during pouring. In addition, a fully open nozzle and the use of a nozzle extension further reduce the amount of entrained air.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyyed Hojjat Majidi
    • 1
  • John Griffin
    • 2
  • Christoph Beckermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Material Science and EngineeringUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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