Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 2343–2356 | Cite as

Similarity Criteria for the Study of Removal of Spherical Non-metallic Inclusions in Physical Models of Continuous Casting Tundishes: A More Fundamental Approach

  • Bernardo Martins BragaEmail author
  • Roberto Parreiras Tavares


Physical modeling is widely used for studying steelmaking processes. The accuracy of this technique depends on the use of appropriate similarity criteria during experimental design. The present work deduced rigorously the similarity criteria for the study of spherical non-metallic inclusions in isothermal physical models of tundishes. Initially, macroscopic quantities were used to simplify the multiphase problem. Then, the similarity criteria were obtained from the dimensionless form of the exact equation of motion for an inclusion in Stokes regime. The validity range of these criteria was discussed and they were compared with common literature practice. Some practical considerations were also presented. This work clarifies various implicit assumptions usually adopted in literature. Additionally, a restrictive criterion to choose the density of the inclusion simulating particles was obtained, which can be satisfied, for example, by hollow glass particles in water models. This criterion is necessary to adequately describe the inclusion motion in regions where fluid elements suffer strong acceleration (e.g., inside nozzles, near flow controllers or in the entering fluid jet). Moreover, it was established an upper limit for the concentration of particles injected in the inlet nozzle of physical models, which do not simulate the phenomenon of inclusion aggregation.



The financial support of FAPEMIG – Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil – in the form of a research grant to R. Tavares, Process No. PPM-00118-13, is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also acknowledge the financial support of CAPES/PROEX to the graduate program. The doctoral scholarship, No. 1487157, from CAPES to B. Braga is acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernardo Martins Braga
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberto Parreiras Tavares
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Engineering SchoolFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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