Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 1644–1657 | Cite as

Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

  • Cesar Augusto Real-RamirezEmail author
  • Ignacio Carvajal-Mariscal
  • Florencio Sanchez-Silva
  • Francisco Cervantes-de-la-Torre
  • Jesus Diaz-Montes
  • Jesus Gonzalez-Trejo


According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold’s upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.



C. A. Real-Ramirez, F. Sanchez-Silva, I. Carvajal-Mariscal, and J. Gonzalez-Trejo thank the SNI for the distinction granted and the stipend received. I. Carvajal-Mariscal thanks IPN and UAM for the sabbatical year. The physical experiments were developed in the Laboratorio de Ingeniería Térmica e Hidráulica Aplicada (LABINTHAP) SEPI-ESIME at the Instituto Politécnico Nacional. The numerical simulations were developed in the Laboratorio de Cómputo y Visualización Científica at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers who pointed out important aspects of this research.


This study was funded by the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesar Augusto Real-Ramirez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ignacio Carvajal-Mariscal
    • 2
  • Florencio Sanchez-Silva
    • 2
  • Francisco Cervantes-de-la-Torre
    • 1
  • Jesus Diaz-Montes
    • 2
  • Jesus Gonzalez-Trejo
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Autonoma MetropolitanaMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIME, UPALMMexico CityMexico

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