Advertisement

Study on the Microstructure and Liquid Phase Formation in a Semisolid Gray Cast Iron

  • 416 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

The development of high-quality semisolid raw materials requires an understanding of the phase transformations that occur as the material is heated up to the semisolid state, i.e., its melting behavior. The microstructure of the material plays a very important role during semisolid processing as it determines the flow behavior of the material when it is formed, making a thorough understanding of the microstructural evolution essential. In this study, the phase transformations and microstructural evolution in Fe2.5C1.5Si gray cast iron specially designed for thixoforming processes as it was heated to the semisolid state were observed using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. At room temperature, the alloy has a matrix of pearlite and ferrite with fine interdendritic type D flake graphite. During heating, the main transformations observed were graphite precipitation inside the grains and at the austenite grain boundaries; graphite flakes and graphite precipitates growing and becoming coarser with the increasing temperature; and the beginning of melting at around 1413 K to 1423 K (1140 °C to 1150 °C). Melting begins with the eutectic phase (i.e., the carbon-rich phase) and continues with the primary phase (primary austenite), which is consumed as the temperature increases. Melting of the eutectic phase composed by coarsened interdendritic graphite flakes produced a semi-continuous liquid network homogeneously surrounding and wetting the dendrites of the solid phase, causing grains to detach from each other and producing the intended solid globules immersed in liquid.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 294

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. 1.

    [1] D.B. Spencer, R. Mehrabian and M.C. Flemings: Metall. Trans., 1972, vol. 3, pp. 1925–32. doi:10.1007/BF02642580

  2. 2.

    [2] H.V. Atkinson: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2005, vol. 50, pp. 341–412. doi: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2004.04.003

  3. 3.

    [3] M.C. Flemings: Metall. Trans. B, 1991, vol. 22, pp. 269–93. doi: 10.1007/BF02661090

  4. 4.

    [4] S. Zabler, A. Ershov, A. Rack, F. Garcia-Moreno, T. Baumbach and J. Banhart: Acta Mater., 2013, vol. 61, pp. 1244–53. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2012.10.047

  5. 5.

    [5] B. Cai, S. Karagadde, L. Yuan, T.J. Marrow, T. Connolley and P.D. Lee: Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 76, pp. 371–80. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2014.05.035

  6. 6.

    [6] T. Werz, M. Baumann, U. Wolfram and C.E. Krill III: Mater. Charact., 2014, vol. 90, pp. 185–95. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2014.01.022

  7. 7.

    [7] K. Du, Q. Zhu, D. Li and F. Zhang: Mater. Charact., 2015, vol. 106, pp. 134–40. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2015.05.035

  8. 8.

    [8] D. Phelan, N. Stanford and R. Dippenaar: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, vol. 407, pp. 127–34. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2005.07.015

  9. 9.

    [9] D. Zhang, H. Terasaki and Y. Komizo: Acta Mater., 2010, vol. 58, pp. 1369–78. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2009.10.043

  10. 10.

    [10] M.M. Attallah, H. Terasaki, R.J. Moat, S.E. Bray, Y. Komizo and M. Preuss: Mater. Charact., 2011, vol. 62, pp. 760–67. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2011.05.001

  11. 11.

    Y. Komizo and H. Terasaki (2010) In situ study of phase transformation in steel during welding. In: T. Kannengiesser, S.S. Babu, Y. Komizo and A.J. Ramirez (Eds.), In situ studies with photons, neutrons and electrons scattering. Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14794-4_1

  12. 12.

    [12] I. Sohn and R. Dippenaar: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2016, vol. 47, pp. 2083–94. doi: 10.1007/s11663-016-0675-0

  13. 13.

    [13] G.C. Gu, R. Pesci, L. Langlois, E. Becker, R. Bigot and M.X. Guo: Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 66, pp. 118–31. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2013.11.075

  14. 14.

    [14] X.G. Hu, Q. Zhu, H.X. Lu, F. Zhang, D.Q. Li and S.P. Midson: J. Alloy. Compd., 2015, vol. 649, pp. 204–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.07.121

  15. 15.

    S.P Midson: Solid State Phenom., 2015, vol. 217-218, pp. 487–95. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.217-218.487

  16. 16.

    S.P. Midson: in Comprehensive Materials Processing, S. Hashimi, ed., Elsevier, Oxford, 2014, vol. 5, pp. 259–74. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-096532-1.00517-3

  17. 17.

    [17] M. Tsuchiya, H. Ueno and I. Takagi: JSAE Rev., 2003, vol. 24, pp. 205–14. doi: 10.1016/S0389-4304(03)00013-4

  18. 18.

    [18] F. Pahlevani and M. Nili-Ahmadabadi: Int. J. Cast. Metal. Res., 2004, vol. 17, pp. 157–61. doi: 10.1179/136404604225020560

  19. 19.

    [19] M. Ramadan, M. Takita and H. Nomura: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, vol. 417, pp. 166–73. doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2005.10.054

  20. 20.

    [20] M. Ramadan, N. El-Bagoury, N. Fathy, M.A. Waly and A.A. Nofal: J. Mater. Sci., 2011, vol. 46, pp. 4013–19. doi: 10.1007/s10853-011-5329-7

  21. 21.

    [21] B. Abbasi-Khazaei and S. Ghaderi: J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2012, vol. 28, pp. 946–50. doi: 10.1016/S1005-0302(12)60156-X

  22. 22.

    [22] J. Cui, H. Zhang, L. Chen, H. Li and W. Tong: Acta Metall. Sin., 2014, vol. 27, pp. 476–82. doi: 10.1007/s40195-014-0067-x

  23. 23.

    [23] A.S. Roca, H.D.C. Fals, J.A. Pedron and E.J. Zoqui: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2012, vol. 212, pp. 1225–35. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.01.012

  24. 24.

    [24] R.L. Nadal, A.S. Roca, H.D.C Fals and E.J. Zoqui: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2015, vol. 226, pp. 146–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.07.015

  25. 25.

    [25] A.M. Camacho, H.V. Atkinson, P. Kapranos and B.B. Argent: Acta Mater., 2003, vol. 51, pp. 2319–30. doi: 10.1016/S1359-6454(03)00040-5

  26. 26.

    ASTM A247-16a: Standard test method for evaluating the microstructure of graphite in iron castings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016. Doi:10.1520/A0247-16A

  27. 27.

    ASTM E112-13: Standard test methods for determining average grain size, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013. doi:10.1520/E0112

  28. 28.

    [28] G.L Rivera, R.E. Boeri and J.A. Sikora: Scr. Mater., 2004, vol. 50, pp. 331–35. doi: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2003.10.019

  29. 29.

    D.M. Stefanescu: in Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 1990, vol. 1, pp. 3–11. ISBN: 978-0-87170-377-4

  30. 30.

    [30] W. Xue and Y. Li: J. Alloy. Compd., 2016, vol. 689, pp. 408–15. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.07.052

  31. 31.

    [31] K. Nakajima, M. Apel and I. Steinbach: Acta Mater., 2006, vol. 54, pp. 3665–72. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2006.03.050

  32. 32.

    [32] D. Liu, H.V. Atkinson and H. Jones: Acta Mater., 2005, vol. 53, pp. 3807–19. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2005.04.028

  33. 33.

    P.J. Uggowitzer and D.I. Uhlenhaut: in Thixoforming: Semi-solid Metal Processing, G. Hirt and R. Kopp, eds., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009, pp. 29–42. doi:10.1002/9783527623969.ch2

  34. 34.

    [34] C.A. Schneider, W.S. Rasband and K.W. Eliceiri: Nat. Methods, 2012, vol. 9, pp. 671–75. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2089

  35. 35.

    [35] H. Wabusseg, G.C. Gullo, P.J. Uggowitzer, K. Steinhoff and H. Kaufmann: J. Mater. Sci., 2002, vol. 37, pp. 1173–78. doi: 10.1023/A:1014315421781

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by São Paulo Research FoundationFAPESP under Grant Numbers 2011/19997-0 and 2015/06965-3. The authors would like to thank IMBIL Industry and Maintenance of Pumps ITA Ltda. for producing the cast iron and the Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, and the School of Mechanical Engineering, University of CampinasUNICAMP, for providing the necessary facilities.

Author information

Correspondence to Eugenio José Zoqui.

Additional information

Manuscript submitted December 20, 2016.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 22960 kb)

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 22960 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Benati, D.M., Ito, K., Kohama, K. et al. Study on the Microstructure and Liquid Phase Formation in a Semisolid Gray Cast Iron. Metall and Materi Trans B 48, 2293–2303 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-017-1018-5

Download citation