Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 37–45 | Cite as

Modeling Manganese Silicate Inclusion Composition Changes during Ladle Treatment Using FactSage Macros

  • Stephano P.T. Piva
  • Deepoo Kumar
  • P. Chris PistoriusEmail author


This work investigated the use of FactSage macros to simulate steel–slag and steel–inclusion reaction kinetics in silicon-manganese killed steels, and predict oxide inclusion composition changes during ladle treatment. These changes were assessed experimentally using an induction furnace to simulate deoxidation and slag addition. The average steel mass transfer coefficient for the experimental setup was calculated from the analyzed aluminum pick-up by steel. Average oxide inclusion composition was measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the physical state (solid or liquid) of oxide inclusions in selected samples. The changes in the chemical compositions of the oxide inclusions and the steel agreed with the FactSage macro simulations.


Mass Transfer Coefficient Nonmetallic Inclusion Liquid Steel Oxide Inclusion Inclusion Composition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful for support of this work by the industrial members of the Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research. We acknowledge use of the Materials Characterization Facility at Carnegie Mellon University supported by Grant MCF-677785. The financial support of Stephano P.T. Piva by CAPES under the process BEX 13379/13-5—Doutorado Pleno/Ciência sem Fronteiras is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephano P.T. Piva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deepoo Kumar
    • 1
  • P. Chris Pistorius
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Iron and Steelmaking ResearchCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.CAPES FoundationMinistry of Education of BrazilBrasíliaBrazil

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