Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 28–36 | Cite as

A Kinetic Ladle Furnace Process Simulation Model: Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone Model Using FactSage Macro Processing

  • Marie-Aline Van Ende
  • In-Ho JungEmail author


The ladle furnace (LF) is widely used in the secondary steelmaking process in particular for the de-sulfurization, alloying, and reheating of liquid steel prior to the casting process. The Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone model using the FactSage macro processing code was applied to develop a kinetic LF process model. The slag/metal interactions, flux additions to slag, various metallic additions to steel, and arcing in the LF process were taken into account to describe the variations of chemistry and temperature of steel and slag. The LF operation data for several steel grades from different plants were accurately described using the present kinetic model.


Reaction Zone Mass Transfer Coefficient Liquid Steel Mass Transfer Equation Ladle Furnace 
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Financial supports from Tata Steel Europe, Posco, Hyundai Steel, Nucor Steel, RioTinto Iron and Titanium, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metals Corp., JFE Steel, Voestalpine, RHI, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada are gratefully acknowledged. The authors also want to thank Tata Steel Europe (T. Galama, E. Harbers, R. Kooter, and S. van der Laan) and Hyundai Steel (G.-H. Park and C.-H. Chang) to share vast amounts of their plant data for the development of this model.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining and Materials EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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