Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 1260–1271 | Cite as

Thermodynamic Consideration of the Removal of Iron from Titanium Ore by Selective Chlorination

  • Jungshin Kang
  • Toru H. OkabeEmail author


Thermodynamic study of the chlorination reactions of oxides such as titanium oxides and iron oxides at elevated temperatures was carried out in order to consider the removal of iron from titanium ore using selective chlorination method. In particular, various chlorination reactions were analyzed by utilizing chemical potential diagrams, and the applicability and usefulness of this thermodynamic study for analyzing the selective chlorination of titanium ore were demonstrated. Furthermore, chlorination reactions using various types of chlorinating agents were discussed from different viewpoints. It was shown that the selective chlorination of iron from titanium ore by HCl gas is thermodynamically feasible and efficient for upgrading titanium ore. Further, thermodynamic analysis showed that under certain conditions, TiCl4 can be used as a chlorinating agent for the iron in the ore, and iron can be removed by evaporation directly from the ore as chloride gas. The results presented in this study provide useful information for developing a process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore for use as a titanium smelting feed through a dry method.


TiO2 TiCl4 Metal Element Chlorination Reaction Chemical Potential Diagram 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Professors Kazuki Morita and Takeshi Yoshikawa, The University of Tokyo; Professor K. T. Jacob, Indian Institute of Science, India; Emeritus Professor Toshio Oishi, Kansai University; Professor Takashi Nakamura, Tohoku University; Professor Shu Yamaguchi, The University of Tokyo; Professor Tetsuya Uda, Kyoto University; Mr. Hidekazu Kato, International Institute for Mining Technology; and Messrs. Susumu Kosemura, Masanori Yamaguchi, and Yuichi Ono, Toho Titanium Co., Ltd., for their valuable suggestions. We would like to specially thank Professor Haiyan Zheng of Northeastern University, China, and Mr. Ryosuke Matsuoka of Global Advanced Metals Pty., Ltd., for providing useful information and the results of their preliminary studies. This research was partly funded by a Grant-in-Aid for the Next Generation of World-Leading Researchers (NEXT Program) for the Research Project for Development of Environmentally Sound Recycling Technology of Rare Metals. Jungshin Kang is grateful for the financial support provided by the MEM (Mechanical, Electrical and Materials Engineering) International Graduate Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) and Grants for Excellent Graduate Schools Program from MEXT.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoMeguro-kuJapan

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