Thermodynamic Consideration of the Removal of Iron from Titanium Ore by Selective Chlorination
- 501 Downloads
Thermodynamic study of the chlorination reactions of oxides such as titanium oxides and iron oxides at elevated temperatures was carried out in order to consider the removal of iron from titanium ore using selective chlorination method. In particular, various chlorination reactions were analyzed by utilizing chemical potential diagrams, and the applicability and usefulness of this thermodynamic study for analyzing the selective chlorination of titanium ore were demonstrated. Furthermore, chlorination reactions using various types of chlorinating agents were discussed from different viewpoints. It was shown that the selective chlorination of iron from titanium ore by HCl gas is thermodynamically feasible and efficient for upgrading titanium ore. Further, thermodynamic analysis showed that under certain conditions, TiCl4 can be used as a chlorinating agent for the iron in the ore, and iron can be removed by evaporation directly from the ore as chloride gas. The results presented in this study provide useful information for developing a process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore for use as a titanium smelting feed through a dry method.
KeywordsTiO2 TiCl4 Metal Element Chlorination Reaction Chemical Potential Diagram
The authors are grateful to Professors Kazuki Morita and Takeshi Yoshikawa, The University of Tokyo; Professor K. T. Jacob, Indian Institute of Science, India; Emeritus Professor Toshio Oishi, Kansai University; Professor Takashi Nakamura, Tohoku University; Professor Shu Yamaguchi, The University of Tokyo; Professor Tetsuya Uda, Kyoto University; Mr. Hidekazu Kato, International Institute for Mining Technology; and Messrs. Susumu Kosemura, Masanori Yamaguchi, and Yuichi Ono, Toho Titanium Co., Ltd., for their valuable suggestions. We would like to specially thank Professor Haiyan Zheng of Northeastern University, China, and Mr. Ryosuke Matsuoka of Global Advanced Metals Pty., Ltd., for providing useful information and the results of their preliminary studies. This research was partly funded by a Grant-in-Aid for the Next Generation of World-Leading Researchers (NEXT Program) for the Research Project for Development of Environmentally Sound Recycling Technology of Rare Metals. Jungshin Kang is grateful for the financial support provided by the MEM (Mechanical, Electrical and Materials Engineering) International Graduate Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) and Grants for Excellent Graduate Schools Program from MEXT.
- 1.The Japan Titanium Society: Titanium Japan, 2013, vol. 61, no.1, p. 84.Google Scholar
- 2.T.H. Okabe and J. Kang: The Latest Technological Trend of Rare Metals, CMC, Tokyo, 2012, Chap. 6–1, pp. 83–94Google Scholar
- 3.M. Tsutsui: Kinzoku, 2013, vol.83, no.4, pp. 292-95.Google Scholar
- 4.J.E. Kogel, N.C. Trivedi, J.M. Barker and S.T. Krukowski: Industrial Minerals & Rocks Commodities, Markets, and Uses 7th ed., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME), Littleton, CO, 2006.Google Scholar
- 5.G.E. Williams and J.D. Steenkamp: Proceedings of Southern African Pyrometallurgy, Johannesburg, 2006, pp. 181–88.Google Scholar
- 7.F. Habashi: Handbook of Extractive Metallurgy, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH—A Wiley, Weinheim, 1997.Google Scholar
- 10.K. Borowiec, A.E. Grau, M. Gueguin, and J.-F. Turgeon: United States Patent 5830420, 1998.Google Scholar
- 11.R.G. Becher, R.G. Canning, B.A. Goodheart, and S. Uusna: Proc. Aust. Inst. Min. Metall., 1965, vol. 21, pp.21-44.Google Scholar
- 12.W. Hoecker: European Patent EP0612854, 1994.Google Scholar
- 13.J.H. Chen: United States Patent 3825419, 1974.Google Scholar
- 14.J.H. Chen and L.W. Huntoon: United States Patent 4019898, 1977.Google Scholar
- 15.J.H. Chen: United States Patent 3967954, 1976.Google Scholar
- 18.T. Wako: Industrial Wastewater Management in Japan, Conference of WEPA Dialogue in Sri Lanka, 2012. http://www.env.go.jp/en/focus/docs/files/20120801-51.pdf.
- 22.S. Fukushima and E. Kimura: Titan. Zircon., 1975, vol. 23, no.2, pp.67-74.Google Scholar
- 23.E. Kimura, A. Fuwa and S. Fukushima: Nippon Kogyo Kaishi, 1979, vol.95, pp. 821-27.Google Scholar
- 27.L.K. Doraiswamy, H.C. Bijawat and M.V. Kunte: Chem. Eng. Progr., 1959, vol.55, no.10, pp.80-88.Google Scholar
- 28.H. Zheng and T.H. Okabe: Proceedings of the 16 th Iketani Conference: Masuko Symposium, Japan, 2006, pp. 1005–10.Google Scholar
- 29.R. Matsuoka and T.H. Okabe: Proceedings of the Symposium on Metallurgical Technology for Waste Minimization (134 th TMS Annual Meeting), San Francisco, United States, 2005.Google Scholar
- 32.H. Zheng: Doctoral Thesis, The University of Tokyo, 2007.Google Scholar
- 33.D.F. Othmer: United States Patent 3859077, 1975.Google Scholar
- 35.D.F. Othmer: United States Patent 3989510, 1976.Google Scholar
- 36.G. Holland and R. Nowak: United States Patent 4288411, 1981.Google Scholar
- 37.T.H. Okabe and T. Oishi: Basic and Application of Thermodynamics and Reaction Kinetics for Materials Processing, The Mining and Materials Processing Institute of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 2004.Google Scholar
- 38.D.R. Gaskell: Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, Washington, USA, 1995.Google Scholar
- 39.M. Takahashi and N. Masuko: Soda Chlor., 2003, vol. 11-12, pp.276-94.Google Scholar
- 40.J.S.J. van Deventer: Thermochim. Acta, 1988, vol. 124, pp. 205–15.Google Scholar
- 42.R. Porter: Mineral Sands Industry Fact Book, Iluka, 2013. http://www.iluka.com/docs/industry-company-information/mineral-sands-industry-fact-book.
- 43.G.M. Bedinger: Titanium Mineral Concentrates, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2013. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/titanium/mcs-2013-timin.pdf.
- 44.G.M. Bedinger: Titanium and Titanium Dioxide, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2013. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/titanium/mcs-2013-titan.pdf.
- 45.N. Kaworu: Titanium Japan, 2013, vol. 61 (1), pp. 35–40.Google Scholar