Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Nitrogen Oxide Formation in the Electric Arc Furnace—Measurement and Modeling

  • Thomas EchterhofEmail author
  • Herbert Pfeifer


In this article, the results of pilot electric arc furnace (EAF) trials and model calculations regarding the formation of NOx in an electric arc furnace are presented. The results of these investigations confirm that the conditions within the electric arc furnace are favorable for the formation of NOx. During pilot furnace trials, a notable influence of the electric parameters on the NOx formation could not be established. The importance of the influence of the furnace atmosphere, especially the O2 and CO content, could be ascertained clearly. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the furnace atmosphere were conducted during the course of the investigations. The results clearly show that the chemical reaction kinetics have a considerable influence on the NOx concentrations measured in the off-gas of electric arc furnaces. Therefore, in addition to the equilibrium calculations, a reactor network model of the EAF was developed subsequently. Using this model, it was possible to reproduce phenomena such as the NOx peak at arc ignition as well as to calculate NOx concentrations, which match measurement data within an order of magnitude.


Volume Flow Rate Furnace Atmosphere Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculation Reactor Network Model Pilot Furnace 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge gratefully the financial support from the European Community—Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFSR-CT-2006-00033).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat EngineeringRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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