Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 549–559 | Cite as

Numerical and Physical Modeling of Steel Flow in a Two-Strand Tundish for Different Casting Conditions

  • Alexander Braun
  • Marek WarzechaEmail author
  • Herbert Pfeifer


This article presents computational and water model studies of the three-dimensional turbulent fluid flow in a two-strand tundish for steady-state and transient casting conditions. First, it presents the flow field measurements obtained at a 1:3-scale water model of the tundish with the particle-image velocimetry (PIV) method during steady-state casting. The PIV measurements were performed using the Reynolds-similarity criterion. Thereafter, numerical simulation is carried out with the computational fluid dynamic software, FLUENT, using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The numerical model is validated using the measurement results obtained with the water model. The results of the numerical calculations are in good agreement with the PIV measurements. On this basis, the validated numerical model is adapted to simulate the 1:1-scale steel flow with boundary conditions that are derived from the real casting process. The nonisothermal, unsteady numerical calculations concerning the cooling process of steel melt inside the tundish are done for a 1:1-scale industrial facility—a 69-t two-strand tundish with a 380-t ladle. The influence of transient boundary conditions at the outlet of the tundish (one blocked strand) on the flow structure and mixing process of fluid during the casting process are investigated. The evaluation of the flow structure is performed using a zonal method, which relates the fluid flow with the mixing processes.


Turbulent Kinetic Energy Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Volume Flow Rate Casting Condition Submerge Entry Nozzle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – DFG; PF 394/7-1).


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Braun
    • 1
  • Marek Warzecha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Herbert Pfeifer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat EngineeringRWTH-Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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