Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 225–233 | Cite as

Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Inert Gas-Shrouded Ladle Nozzles and Their Role on Slag Behavior and Fluid Flow Patterns in a Delta-Shaped, Four-Strand Tundish

  • Kinnor Chattopadhyay
  • Mainul Hasan
  • Mihaiela Isac
  • Roderick I.L. Guthrie


Inert gas shrouding practices were simulated using a full-scale, four-strand water model of a 12-tone, delta-shaped tundish. Compressed air was aspirated into the ladle shroud to model volumetric flow rates that range between 2 and 10 pct of steel entry flows. Bubble trajectories, slag layer movements, and flow fields, were visualized. Flow fields were visualized using particle image velocimetry (PIV). A numerical model also was developed using discrete phase modeling (DPM) along with the standard k-ε turbulence model with two-way turbulence coupling. Predicted flow fields and bubble trajectories corresponded with the water model experiments.


Particle Image Velocimetry Liquid Steel Residence Time Distribution Submerged Entry Nozzle Discrete Phase 
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Authors and Affiliations

  • Kinnor Chattopadhyay
    • 1
  • Mainul Hasan
    • 1
  • Mihaiela Isac
    • 1
  • Roderick I.L. Guthrie
    • 1
  1. 1.McGill Metals Processing Centre, Department of Mining and Materials EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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