Surface Oxide Film Entrainment Mechanisms in Shape Casting Running Systems



During the transient phase of filling a casting running system, surface turbulence can cause the entrainment of oxide films into the bulk liquid. Research has shown that these are detrimental to the material’s integrity. Common mechanisms for this entrainment include returning waves, arising during filling of the runner bar, and plunging jets, found when pouring into a basin. One of these, the returning wave, has been studied in greater depth, using real-time X-ray and process modeling techniques alongside the application of physical principals. It has been concluded that when developed, returning waves cannot attain the more stable and less entraining tranquil flow regime desirable in the running system of castings.


Wave Height Flow Depth Hydraulic Jump Fluid Depth Return Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge the help of The School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, for sponsoring the Ph.D. of CR; the support of Flow Science Inc.; and the EPSRC support of NG’s chair (Grant No. EP/D505569/1).


  1. 1.
    J. Campbell: Castings, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1991, pp. 17–31.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.R. Green and J. Campbell: Trans. Am. Foundry Soc., 1994, vol. 114, pp. 341–47.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Campbell: Castings, 2nd ed., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2003, pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Sirrell, M. Holliday, and J. Campbell: Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Process VII, TMS, PA, 1995, pp. 915–33.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Chanson: Eur. J. Mech., B/Fluids, 2007, vol. 26, pp. 367–84.MATHCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Chanson: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conf., Gold Coast, Austraila, 2007, pp. 39–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Murzyn and H. Chanson: Exp. Fluids, 2008, vol. 45, pp. 513–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Chanson: Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows, Academic Press, London, 1996, pp. 79–82.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.S. Massey: Mechanics of Fluids, 6th ed., Chapman & Hall, London, 1992, pp. 363–76.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.W. Fox and A.T. McDonald: Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1985, pp. 460–91.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    F.-Y. Hsu: Further Developments of Running Systems for Aluminium Castings, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Reilly: Surge Control Systems for Gravity Castings, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Reilly, N.R. Green, M.R. Jolly, and J.C. Gebelin: Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Process XII, TMS, PA, 2009, vol. 12, pp. 419–26.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    M. Cox, R.A. Harding, and J. Campbell: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2003, vol. 19, p. 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    K.C. Mills: Recommended Values of Thermophysical Properties for Selected Commercial Alloys, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, 2002, pp. 43–49.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Runyoro, S.M.A. Boutorabi, and J. Campbell: AFS Trans., 1992, vol. 37, pp. 225–34.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.J. Runyoro: Design of Gating Systems, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 1992.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.K. Misra, J.T. Kirby, M. Brocchini, F. Veron, M. Thomas, and C. Kambhamettu: Phys. Fluids, 2008, vol. 20, p. 035106.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Metals Reference Book, Butterworth and Co., London, 1976, pp. 944–46.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Cox, R.A. Harding, and J. Campbell: Mater. Sci. Technol., 2003, vol. 19, pp. 613–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Campbell: Castings Practice: The Ten Rules of Casting, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2004, pp. 41–59.Google Scholar

Copyright information


Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.School of Metallurgy and MaterialsUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations