Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 351–356 | Cite as

Surface Tension during Molten Metal Granulation

  • I.J. BarkerEmail author


The surface tensions of a number of common commercial ferroalloys have been measured during their granulation in water. These measured values are significantly lower than would be expected from a normal metal-gas interface and are more typical of the interfacial tensions of slag-gas interfaces. This would seem to indicate that the slag-metal interface on the surface of a granule produces no significant interfacial tension. An electron microscope study on sections through the surface layers of granules showed that, in some cases, although not in all, emulsification had occurred at the slag-metal interface.


Surface Tension Interfacial Tension Emulsification Surface Tension Force Characteristic Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author sincerely thanks the other members of the Blobulator team for their help in gathering the information needed for this article. This article is published by permission of Mintek.


  1. 1.
    F.C. Levey, M.B. Cortie, and I.J. Barker: Proc. 54th Electric Furnace Conf., Dallas, TX, Dec. 9–12, 1996, ISS, Warrendale, PA, 1997, pp. 243–48Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.C. Levey, M.B. Cortie, and I.J. Barker: South Africa Patent ZA 96/7533, 1996; also PCT Application No. PCT/GB96/02209Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.B. Cortie, I.J. Barker, D. Knight, and F. Levey: 8th Int. Ferroalloys Congr. Proc., China Science & Technology Press, Beijing, China, June 7–10, 1998, pp. 394–400Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Strobos: Heavy Minerals 1999, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, 1999, pp. 189–92Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.D. Richardson: Physical Chemistry of Melts in Metallurgy, Academic Press, London, 1974, vol. 2, pp. 426–61Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Chung, D. Kim, and A.W. Cramb: Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking and 57th Ironmaking Conf., Toronto, Mar. 22–25, 1998, ISS, Warrendale, PA, 1998, pp. 1759–67Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Iida, R.I.L. Guthrie: The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1988Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th ed., R.C. Weast, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1988–1989Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Dumay, A.W. Cramb: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1995, vol. 26B, pp. 173–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Sharan, A.W. Cramb: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1995, vol. 26B, pp. 87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Brooks, A. Cameron: ISIJ Int., 2000, vol. 40, Suppl., pp. S157–S159Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Kozakevitch, G. Urbain, M. Sage: Rev. Metall., 1955, vol. 11 (2), pp. 161–72Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Ooi, T. Nozaki, H. Yoshii: Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jpn., 1974, vol. 14, pp. 9–16Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.V. Ribaud, L.D. Lucas: Can. Metall. Q., 1981, vol. 20 (2), pp. 199–208Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.W. Cramb and I. Jimbo: Scaninject VII, 7th Int. Conf. on Refining Processes, Lulea Sweden, June 7–8, 1995, Mefos, Lulea, Sweden, 1995, Part I, pp. 89–109Google Scholar

Copyright information


Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Measurement and Control DivisionMintekRandburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations